Schizophrenia Research Forum - A Catalyst for Creative Thinking
Home Profile Membership/Get Newsletter Log In Contact Us
 For Patients & Families
What's New
Recent Updates
SRF Papers
Current Papers
Search All Papers
Search Comments
News
Research News
Conference News
Plain English
Forums
Current Hypotheses
Idea Lab
Online Discussions
Virtual Conferences
Interviews
Resources
What We Know
SchizophreniaGene
Animal Models
Drugs in Trials
Research Tools
Grants
Jobs
Conferences
Journals
Community Calendar
General Information
Community
Member Directory
Researcher Profiles
Institutes and Labs
About the Site
Mission
History
SRF Team
Advisory Board
Support Us
How to Cite
Fan (E)Mail
The Schizophrenia Research Forum web site is sponsored by the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation and was created with funding from the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health.
Animal Models for Schizophrenia Research
For more information on the creation and updating of this table, see the Introduction.

Printable versionPrintable version Unless otherwise specified, organism is mouse.
Name DA-related behavior Gating Cognitive behavior Social behavior Molecular and/or Morphological Signature Response to APD
Monkey Fetal Irradiation     Impaired working memory   Mid-gestational irradiation decreases both gray and white matter in frontal cortex.  
Rat 24 hour Maternal Deprivation on Post-natal Day 9   Disrupted PPI, Effect develops after puberty.     Males only: neuronal degeneration and increased GFAP+ cells in cerebellum; neuronal degeneration and increased astrocytes in hippocampus Both sexes: altered cannabinoid receptor expression in hippocampus; increased plasma glucocorticoid levels; increased levels of 5- HT in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum (some changes sex dependent); increased levels of DA in the prefrontal cortex and striatum Haloperidol reverses PPI deficit.
Rat Antimitotic Agent – MAM or AraC Enhanced response to amphetamine and MK-801 (post-puberty) Disrupted PPI (post-puberty) Learning deficits in Morris water maze, object recognition, and attentional set-shifting; no change in 5-choice serial reaction time task Decreased social interaction (deficit present prior to puberty) Reduced hippocampal volume; alterations of NMDAR protein levels and function in the hippocampus; increased neuron density in prefrontal cortex; enhanced NAc DA release to amphetamine; increased firing of dopaminergic neurons; enlarged lateral and third ventricles Increased response to MK-801 was attenuated by risperidone, haloperidol, and clozapine
Rat Maternal Malnutrition Enhanced amphetamine- but not MK-801-induced locomotion and apomorphine-induced stereotopy; (females only with post-pubertal onset) Disrupted PPI (females only with post-pubertal onset)     Increases in NMDA receptor binding (sex- and region-specific); increased DA receptor binding and decreased DA transporter binding in striatum (females only)  
Rat Neonatal Immune Challenge: Borna Disease Virus Enhanced novelty induced locomotor activity in Fisher rats; enhanced amphetamine-induced locomotion Disrupted PPI in Fisher rats Reduced social interaction   Impairs BDNF synaptogenesis; prefrontal cortex thinning; loss of cerebellar Purkinje neurons; increased norepinephrine and 5-HT levels in cortex and cerebellum (post-pubertal)  
Rat Placental Insufficiency/Birth Insults Enhanced amphetamine-induced locomotion and accumbal dopamine release Disrupted PPI (post-pubertal onset) Performance on Morris water maze and T-maze appears normal   Reduced DA release in PFC, increased DAT in NAc (basal), decreased DA receptor expression; reduced dentate granule cells; region- and age-specific alterations in dendritic spine development; altered expression of presynaptic genes; decreased caudate-putamen volume PPI deficits reversed by clozapine
Rat Prenatal Immune Challenge: LPS Increased amphetamine-induced locomotion Enhanced acoustic startle; disrupted PPI (worse in males) Impaired object recognition (post-puberty) Reduced social interaction, possibly due to increased anxiety Reduced dendritic complexity in PFC and hippocampus; increased accumbal DA and striatal DOPAC; elevated serum and fetal brain cytokine levels; altered frontal synaptophysin expression; reduced parvalbumin-expressing neurons in the hippocampus; down regulated expression of several genes involved in neurogenesis and neuronal migration; (direction of some changes are age-dependent) PPI deficit and elevated serum cytokines both reversed by haloperidol
Rat Prenatal Variable Stress Increased response to amphetamine and PCP with post-pubertal onset Disrupted PPI and N40 Impaired object and social recognition; deficits in Morris water maze; impaired cued and contextual fear conditioning; impairment in sustained attention and inhibitory response control Impaired social interaction present in adolescent and adult rats; reversal by oxytocin; no effect of cross-fostering NMDA, GABAergic and presynaptic protein dysregulation; reduced hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal volume; decreased BDNF protein expression in the hippocampus (strain dependent); altered pattern of apical dendritic maturation of pyramidal neurons (males only) Social interaction deficit not improved by haloperidol
Rat Prenatal Vitamin D Insufficiency Enhanced MK-801induced locomotion; enhanced amphetamine-induced locomotion (females only) No disruption in PPI   No deficit in social behavior Enlarged lateral ventricles; thinned cortex; altered brain expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial function, calcium homeostasis, and synaptic plasticity; decreased neurogenesis Haloperidol ameliorated effects on neurogenesis
Rodent Prenatal Immune Challenge: PolyI:C (delivery timing varies) No change in total distance traveled in open field but reduced center exploration; increased response to amphetamine and MK-801 (emerges after puberty)--not rescued by cross-fostering Disrupted PPI and changes in latent inhibition (post-puberty); PPI deficit not rescued by cross-fostering Reduced escape latency in Morris water maze; impairment n novel object recognition memory and latent inhibition (post-puberty); classical fear conditioning, active avoidance and discrimination learning appear normal Reduced social interaction Amphetamine-induced DA release increased; increased hippocampal pyknotic cells; increased DA turnover and reduced binding to D2 receptors in striatum; reduced reelin- and parvalbumin- expressing neurons in PFC; reduced D1 receptors in PFC; increased TH expression in striatum; reduced density of cerebellar Purkinje cells; delayed myelination of hippocampus Deficits in latent inhibition and novel object recognition memory are improved by clozapine but not haloperidol
Rat Prenatal Immune Challenge: PolyI:C (Delivery Timing Varies) Increased response to amphetamine (emerges after puberty); in moms that lost or gained little weight offspring showed attenuated hyperactivity in response to MK-801 Disrupted PPI (possibly sex dependent) Disrupted latent inhibition (post-puberty); impaired novel object recognition; classical fear conditioning, active avoidance, water maze and discrimination learning appear normal   Amphetamine-induced DA release increased; increased hippocampal pyknotic cells Deficit in latent inhibition was improved by clozapine and haloperidol; altered response to amphetamine was attenuated by adolescent treatment with fluoxetine and aripiprazole
Mouse Prenatal Immune Challenge: PolyI:C (Delivery Timing Varies) No change in total distance traveled in open field but reduced center exploration; increased response to amphetamine and MK-801 (emerges after puberty; not rescued by cross-fostering) Disrupted PPI (post-puberty; deficits not rescued by cross-fostering) Reduced escape latency in Morris water maze; impairment in novel object recognition memory; deficits in latent inhibition (post-puberty; deficits not rescued by cross-fostering); electrophysiology: reduced theta oscillation generated in the CA1 area of the hippocampus Reduced social interaction Increased DA turnover and reduced binding to D2 receptors in striatum; reduced reelin- and parvalbumin- expressing neurons in PFC; reduced DA levels and D1 receptors in PFC; increased TH expression in striatum; reduced density of cerebellar Purkinje cells; delayed myelination of hippocampus; reduced parvalbumin-expressing neurons in the hippocampus; enlargement of lateral ventricles; impaired synaptic development of upper-layer neurons Disrupted PPI was improved by clozapine and chlorpromazine; deficits in latent inhibition and novel object recognition memory were improved by clozapine but not haloperidol; deficits in Morris water maze were improve by clozapine
Mouse Prenatal Restraint Stress Increased novelty induced locomotor activity; enhanced MK-801induced locomotion Impaired PPI Deficits in object recognition memory and contextual fear conditioning Reduced social interaction Abnormal Purkinje cell growth and dendritic atrophy; glial deficits in the hippocampus (female specific); over-expression of DNMTs mRNA in the frontal cortex; decreased GAD67, reelin, and mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptor protein levels in the frontal cortex; altered neuronal migration Clozapine reversed deficits in PPI and social interaction; increased locomotive response to MK-801 was attenuated by clozapine; phenotypic rescue with mGluR2/3 agonist or valproic acid
Mouse Prenatal Variable Stress (GD1-7)     Altered learning and memory during a modified Barnes maze task (sex specific; timing specific)   Increased plasma glucocorticoid levels following stress; altered expression of glucocorticoid receptor expression in the hippocampus; dysmasculinization of offspring and second generation offspring (paternal stress lineage) via epigenetic programming  
Mouse Prenatal Immune Challenge: Human Influenza Virus Decreased open field exploration Impaired PPI   Impaired social interaction Reduced reelin expression in cortex layer 1; increased pyramidal cell density; cortical and callosal atrophy; reduced 5-HT levels in cerebellum atrophy; altered expression of myelination genes in the cerebellum; reduced 5-HT levels in cerebellum; increased 5-HT2A receptor expression in frontal cortex Clozapine and chlorpromazine increase PPI – hyper-reversal of PPI deficit
Rat Isolation Rearing Enhanced amphetamine-induced locomotion and DA release (strain-dependent) Disrupted PPI (strain-dependent) Performance on Morris water maze and T-maze appears normal Impaired novel object recognition, attentional set-shifting, and performance on Morris water maze Increased social interaction and aggression (males); impaired social recognition Reduced PFC volume (neuron # unchanged) and GAT-1 expression; altered accumbal protein expression (some correlated with PPI deficits); reduced accumbal dendritic length and spine density; altered NMDA receptor mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex; enhanced amplitudes of hippocampal voltage-dependent transient outward K+ currents Raclopride reversed PPI deficit
Rat Prenatal Restraint Stress Increased novelty induced locomotor activity No disruption in PPI Memory deficits during Y maze and radial arm maze; no apparent deficits in latent inhibition, may or may not show spatial memory defict in water maze task   Increased expression of D2-like and NMDA receptors in the frontal cortex and hippocampus; prolonged corticosterone stress response and decreased expression of central corticosteroid receptors (sensitive to cross-fostering); increased basal dopamine and decreased noradrenaline output in the nucleus accumbens; decreased basal noradrenaline output in the prefrontal cortex; apical dendritic atrophy and altered spine density in the hippocampus; decrease neurogenesis in hippocampus Maternal fluoxetine treatment improves hippocampal neurogenesis and reverses anxiety behaviors in stressed offspring
Printable versionPrintable version Unless otherwise specified, organism is mouse.
Name DA-related behavior Gating Cognitive behavior Social behavior Molecular and/or Morphological Signature Response to APD
Basolateral Amygdala Picrotoxin Infusion-Rat           GABA antagonism in BLA decreases GAD67 in HPC, GABA antagonism in BLA increases HPC LTP
Ceftriaxone-Induced Glutamate Transporter Upregulation   Impairs PPI.        
Methamphetamine Treatment-Chronic   Disrupted PPI Impaired recognition memory   Increased TUNEL-positive cells in mPFC Memory impairment blocked by GABA(B) agonist, PPI disruption and TUNEL-positive cell counts blocked by olanzapine and risperidone
Neonatal EGF Treatment Increased locomotor activity Impaired PPI   Reduced social behavior Enhanced cAMP response to D2R activation Haloperidol reduced motoric activity, clozapine improved social deficit
CHX Induced Glutathione Depletion     Disrupted short-term spatial memory   Reduced striatal and cortex glutathione levels  
Disinhibition of Ventral Hippocampus Increased locomotor activity Disrupted PPI Disrupted fear conditioning   Increased accumbens and cortex dopamine Haloperidol and clozapine block hyperactivity but no effect on PPI deficit
NMDA Receptor Antagonist Rx (MK801, PCP, Ketamine)-Acute Increases locomotor activity and stereotopy, ataxia Disrupted PPI 1 day after PCP, and 15 minutes after PCP, but not 7 or 28 days later, abnormal latent inhibition Decreased working memory, disrupted fear conditioning, long-term spatial memory deficits, impaired passive-avoidance, recognition memory deficit Impaired social interaction Impaired LTP, decreased AMPA receptor density Enhanced locomotor responses blocked by APD, glycine transporter-1 inhibition rescues LTP, PPI disruption attenuated by admatine, glycine, D-serine, not D-cycloserine, fear conditioning disruption prevented by clozapine, but not haloperidol, LI abnormalities reversed by risperidone and M100907, passive avoidance impairment reversed by lurasidone, recognition memory deficit reversed by clozapine and D-serine, but not haloperidol
Printable versionPrintable version Unless otherwise specified, organism is mouse.
Name DA-related behavior Gating Cognitive behavior Social behavior Molecular and/or Morphological Signature Response to APD
Alpha-CaMKII KO, Heterozygous Increased locomotor.   Deficits in working memory. Increased aggressive behavior. Impaired neuronal development in the dentate gyrus.  
Calcineurin Agamma KO Enhanced response to amphetamine Disrupted PPI and latent inhibition Disrupted PPI and latent inhibition Impaired social interaction Inducible KO  
Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB1) KO Decreased PCP-induced locomotion     No effect on social interaction    
Catecholamine O-methyl transferase (COMT) KO No potentiation of amphetamine-induced locomotion   Impaired recognition memory in heterozygous only No deficit in sociability or social novelty in KO or hets Increased DOPAC, D1 and D2 unchanged Increased anxiety and aggression
Chakragati Mouse (ckr) Circling, hyperactive PPI and latent inhibition deficits   Reduced social interactions Enlarged ventricles  
Chromosome 22 Deletion   Disrupted PPI Impaired cognitive function      
Complexin I KO Decreased amphetamine-induced locomotion   No cognitive deficits in two-choice swim tank Social deficits; no preference for social novelty; no aggressive behavior in resident-intruder paradigm    
Complexin II KO     Decreased LTP; reduced Morris water maze performance only after stress      
DBA/2 Mouse   Disrupted N40 gating and PPI     Decreased levels Glu, tau and GABA in hippocampus Phenotype reversed by a7-nicotinic and α4β2 receptor agonist; by olanzapine via alpha7-nicotinic receptor; by gestational choline supplementation; by baclofen and clozapine
DISC 129S6/SvEv Mouse     Working memory deficit   DISC1 mutation; deficit in hippocampal short term plasticity; altered organization of neurons in dentate gyrus  
DISC1 KO Enhanced locomotor activity Disrupted PPI; Decreased latent inhibition   Impaired social interaction Decreased cortical parvalbumin-containing cells, accelerated neurogenesis with aberrant connectivity  
Disc1tr (Truncated) Mouse Increased immobility Impaired conditioning of latent inhibition     Enlarged ventricles; reduced parvalbumin neurons in hippocampus and mPFC  
Disheveled 1 KO   Disrupted PPI   Impaired social interaction    
Dopamine Transporter KO Increased DA and decreased D1R, D2R, hyperactive Disrupted PPI Impaired adaption to environmental changes in Morris water maze Impaired social behavior Decreased LTD in hippocampus More aggressive; impairments in Morris water maze reversed by haloperidol and acute nicotine treatment; LTD reversed by haloperidol
Dysbindin-1, Sandy (sdy) Mouse Delayed hyperactivity in novel environment; less active in open field   Object recognition deficit; impaired long-term memory retention and working memory Decreased social interaction DTNBP1 mutation with lack of dysbindin protein; increase in DA metabolism in different brain regions; reduced snapin in hippocampus; decreased DA levels in cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus; altered kinetics of transmitter release  
ErbB4 KO Reduced spontaneous activity; hyperactivity in open field   Reduced Morris water maze learning   Reduced myelination, enhanced DA receptor expression  
FEZ1 KO Hyperactive; enhanced response to MK-801 and methamphetamine       Increased methamphetamine-induced DA release in nucleus accumbens  
GABAAalpha3 Receptor KO Spontaneous locomotor activity slightly increased but not after amphetamine Disrupted PPI       PPI defect improved by haloperidol Rx
Galphas Overexpression in Forebrain Hyperlocomotion PPI deficit Impaired hippocampus-dependent learning and memory retrieval   Enlarged ventricles PPI deficits reversed by haloperidol and rolipram
GAP-43 KO Hyperactive in open field, reduced anxiety Disrupted PPI        
GDI1 Knockout     Impaired short-term memory Diminished social behavior   Less aggression
Heterozygous Nurr1 KO Hyperactive in novel environment and also after amphetamine   Decreased emotional memory   Reduced DA turnover in striatum; Increased DA turnover in PFC Haloperidol reverses spontaneous hyperactivity
Heterozygous Reeler Mouse Enhanced mesolimbic dopamine Cross-modal PPI deficits, no unimodal PPI deficit Decreased working memory; no decrease in prefrontal cortex dependent task Impaired social interaction Reduced GAD 67, increased DNA methylation; increased truncated TrkB receptor, decreased BDNF/TrkB signaling in frontal cortex  
Homer1a KO Enhanced locomotor behavior to MK-801 and methamphet-amine Disrupted PPI Decreased radial arm maze performance   Decreased glutamate release in PFC following cocaine Rx  
Inducible Mutant hDISC1 Mice Spontaneous hyperactivity   Deficient spatial memory in females Alterations in social interaction Attenuation of neurite outgrowth in cortical neurons; enlarged ventricles  
Insulin Receptor KO   Decreased startle amplitude     Decreased insulin receptor and Akt signaling; reduced phosphorylated GSK-3 Clozapine alleviates insulin resistance
MCH KO Mice Increased basal locomotor activity; hypersensitive locomotor response to d-amphetamine          
mGluR1 Knockout   Disrupted PPI       Not reversed by raclopride
mGluR5 Knockout Abnormal locomotor patterns; increased sensitivity to hyperlocomotive effects of MK-801 Disrupted PPI Short term spatial memory deficits     APD not effective; clozapine reversed PPI deficit and ameliorated locomotor disruption (Gray)
NCAM-180 KO   Disrupted PPI, no changes induced by apomorphine Rx       Increase lateral ventricle size
Neuregulin 1 Hypomorph (Transmembrane Domain) Hyperactive in open field test Disrupted PPI No impairment in spatial learning or working memory but diminished social recognition memory Increase in dominance related and aggressive behavior depending on environment Reduced NMDA receptor activity; increased serotonin 2A receptors and serotonin transporters in CNS Open field behavior reversed by clozapine but not PPI
Neurexophillin 3 KO Reduced rotorod performance Disrupted PPI but increased startle response     Expressed in Cajal-Retzius cells  
NgR1 KO Mildly hypoactive Strain-background dependent absence of PPI Reduced spatial working memory      
NMDA NR1 Receptor Hypomorph Enhanced response to amphetamine Disrupted PPI   Impaired social interaction 95% reduction in NR1 expression Behaviors improved by APD
nPAS 1/3 KO Enhanced open field locomotion Disrupted PPI Decreased social recognition   Reduced reelin interneurons  
Oxytocin and Oxytocin Receptor KO   PCP treatment induces large deficits in PPI   Impaired social discrimination   More aggressive
Trace Amine 1 Receptor KO Enhanced locomotor response to amphetamine Disrupted PPI     Increased psychostimulant-induced DA release  
Transient D2 Receptor Overexpression Hyperactive   Impaired working memory   Overexpression of D2 receptors in striatum  
Type III Nrg1 Targeted Disruption, Heterozygous   PPI deficits Impaired short-term memory   Enlarged ventricles; decreased dendritic spine density on subicular neurons PPI deficits reversed by chronic nicotine treatment
Prefrontal Cortical Lesion Lesion potentiation of amphetamine induced locomotion under high stress conditions only Medial lesions only augment PPI and lesions have no effect on LI        
GLAST (EAAT1) KO Locomotor hyperactivity in novel environment; exaggerated hyperactivity in response to MK-801         Phenotype normalized by haloperidol and mGlu2/3 agonist
YWHAE Heterozygous KO Normal activity in open field No PPI deficits Mild deficit in spatial working memory, no impairment in reversal learning Normal social interaction 50% reduction of 14-3-3epsilon protein expression  
SNAP 25 overexpression Normal locomotion in open field No PPI deficit Impaired spatial learning in water maze; impaired contextual fear conditioning   Overexpression of SNAP 25 in hippocampus of adult rat  
Serine Racemase 1st exon KO Hyperactive   Impaired spatial memory; disrupted order of events representation No social interaction deficit Lack ability to produce D-Serine; altered glutamatergic neurotransmission; abnormal dendritic morphology  
Brattleboro (vasopressin-deficient) rats Hyperactive in novel setting Increased acoustic startle and decreased PPI   Impaired social discrimination Point mutation in gene for vasopressin; decreased dopamine concentration in frontal cortex PPI deficit reversed by acute clozapine and risperidone; chronic but not acute haloperidol reverses deficit
Nurr1 Heterozygous KO Hyperactive in novel environment and also after amphetamine; enhanced response to MK-801 Disrupted PPI in males but not females Decreased emotional memory; intact spatial memory No social interaction deficit Reduced DA turnover in striatum; Increased DA turnover in PFC Haloperidol reverses spontaneous hyperactivity
Vasopressin 1a receptor KO     Decreased social recognition     Phenotype rescued by increase V1a expression in lateral septum
Vasopressin 1b receptor KO Reduced PFC DA Disrupted PPI Impaired novel object recognition Decreased social interest; decreased social novelty preference; Impaired social recognition   Atypical APD improve PPI but not haloperidol
AKT1 KO Mice Normal activity in open field No baseline PPI in males, baseline PPI deficit in females (Chen; Emamian did not find PPI deficit in either sex at baseline); PPI deficit caused by amphetamine No impairment in spatial learning     Antipsychotics did not normalize PPI in females, but GSK inhibitors did
Cannabinoid receptor 2 KO Hypoactive in open field; enhanced hyperactivity in response to cocaine PPI deficit Impaired memory consolidation     PPI deficit improved by risperidone
Homer1 KO Hypoactive; enhanced locomotor behavior to MK-801 and methamphetamine Disrupted PPI (Szumlinski; not found by Jaubert) Decreased radial arm maze performance Increased social interaction; increased aggression in heterozygotes; impaired nest-building Decreased glutamate release in PFC following cocaine Rx  
Neurotensin-2 receptor KO mice Hyperactive in open field (Liang; – not found by Feifel) Enhanced PPI in males     Increased striatal dopamine  
Nitric oxide synthase KO mice Hyperactive in novel setting No PPI deficit Impaired spatial memory; impaired contextual fear conditioning Increased social interaction; reduced social novelty preference    
Nogo-A KO mice Enhanced hyperactivity in response to amphetamines PPI deficit Perseverative behavior; normal spatial learning      
P35 (CDK5 Activator) Heterozygous Knockout Mice No locomotor abnormalities PPI deficit in females, not males Reversal learning impaired in females Social interaction deficit in males    
PACAP KO Mice Hyperactive in open field PPI deficit   Reduced social interaction   Hyperactivity reduced with risperidone; PPI deficit reversed by risperidone; social interaction deficit and hyperactivity reduced when animals raised in enriched environment
PDGFR-beta KO mice   PPI deficit Impairment in fear conditioning Decreased social interaction Reduced GABAergic neurons in HPC, PFC and amygdala  
PGE2 EP2 KO mice Normal activity in open field PPI deficit Normal spatial memory; impaired fear conditioning Impairment in social habituation    
Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor KO (Plaur Mice)     Impaired reversal learning   Reduced parvalbumin-positive interneurons in anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex; reduced levels of HGF/SF Postnatal supplementation with HGF/SF normalizes reversal learning impairment
Rictor KO mice   PPI deficit     Reduced phosphorylation of AKT1; reduced dopamine in frontal cortex  
RIM1alpha KO mice Hyperactive in novel setting; enhanced response to MK-801 PPI deficits   Decreased social interaction    
Sp4 Hypomorphic Mice   PPI deficit Impaired spatial learning; impaired LTP   Hippocampal vacuolization; abnormal development of dentate gyrus; reduced levels of NMDA-NR1 but not NR2A or NR2B  
Synapsin III KO mice Hyperactivity in open field PPI deficit Normal spatial learning; object recognition deficit; Abnormal fear conditioning      
Tcf4 Overexpressing Transgenic Mice Normal activity in open field PPI deficit Normal spatial learning in water maze task; impaired fear conditioning      
DISC 129S6/SvEv Mouse (25-bp deletion in exon 6)     Working memory deficit   DISC1 mutation; deficit in hippocampal short term plasticity; altered organization of neurons in dentate gyrus  
DISC1 mutant (exon 2/3 deletion) Normal activity in open field PPI deficit No impairment in working memory or novel object recognition Increased social interaction No morphological changes; altered threshold for LTP  
Transient DISC1 Knockdown in PFC in utero Normal spontaneous locomotion; hypersensitive to methamphetamine PPI deficits in adults but not juveniles Impairment in novel object recognition test   Reduced dopamine concentration in PFC; Reduced parvalbumin-positive interneurons in PFC PPI deficits normalized by clozapine; impairment in novel object recogntion test normalized by clozapine
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion-Df1 mice   Disrupted PPI Impaired cognitive function   Haploinsufficiency of Tbx1 and Gnb1l responsible for PPI deficit  
Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Model-Lgde1 Mice Normal activity in open field PPI deficit Normal fear conditioning   Disrupted cortical neurogenesis and interneuron migration  
Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Model-Df(16)A Mice Hyperactive in novel environment PPI deficit Impaired fear conditioning; spatial learning deficit   Reduced dendritic spines in HPC; reduced hippocampal-prefrontal synchrony  
Glycine Transporter KO Locomotor response to psycho-stimulants same as wild-type Reduced sensitivity to amphetamine to disrupt PPI but more MK-801 induced disruption Improves memory retention   Increased NMDA receptor expression and function  
Grin1D481N   Persistent latent inhibition Spatial recognition impairments Social approach deficits Reduced NMDAR glycine affinity Phenotype reversed by D-serine treatment
GSK-3beta Knockout   Disrupted PPI correlates with enzyme activity; no PPI disruption (Bersudsky)        
Heterozygous Tbx1 and Gnb1 KO   Reduced PPI        
Neurotensin-1 receptor KO mice Hyperactive in open field; no effect of PCP on locomotor activity; enhanced hyperactivity in response to amphetamine No PPI deficit (Feifel)     Decreased glutamate and NMDA-2A subunit concentration; increased striatal dopamine  
Adenosine Kinase Transgenic Mice Reduced locomotor response to amphetamine; enhanced locomotor response to MK-801   Learning deficits in Morris water maze and Pavlovian conditioning   Overexpression of adenosine kinase; reduced levels of adenosine in brain  
AMPAR GluR1 Subunit KO Hyperactive, no effect of MK-801 on locomotor behavior PPI deficit Disrupted spatial working memory Disorganized social behaviors Slowed extracellular DA clearance in striatum Anxiety prone; Hyperactivity reversed by haloperidol
Aph1B/C KO Enhanced hyperactivity in response to amphetamine PPI deficits, hypersensitive to MK-801 (increased PPI deficits) Impaired working memory on Morris water maze   Enhanced DA turnover in ventral striatum; gamma-secretase dependent cleavage of Nrg1 is impaired Haloperidol and clozapine reverse PPI deficits
Apomorphine Susceptible Rat Enhanced locomotor response to novel open field Disrupted PPI and diminished latent inhibition; Visual and acoustic PPI deficits; Sprague-Dawley rats more sensitive t     Preferential mobilization of NMDAR NR1 subunits in D1R containing neurons of the nucleus accumbens  
BACE1 KO Increased novelty-induced hyperactivity; hypersensitivity to locomotor effects of MK-801 PPI deficits Working memory deficits; impaired in inhibitory avoidance task Alterations in social recognition Impaired processing of NRG1; decreased spine density and mature spines in CA1 Clozapine attenuates novelty-induced hyperactivity and normalizes PPI deficits
PDE4B KO Reduced baseline motor activity; exaggerated locomotor response to amphetamine Decreased PPI No deficit in Morris water maze   Decreased striatal DA and 5-HT activity  
Phosphodiesterase 1B KO Enhanced behavioral response to methamphetamine   Morris water maze performance impairment   Increased DARPP-32 phosphorylation  
PLC-beta1 KO Hyperactive Sensorimotor gating deficits Memory impairment and lack of acquisition on hippocampal-dependent fear conditioning task Abnormal social behavior   Clozapine (McOmish) and haloperidol (Koh) rescues sensorimotor deficits
Proline Dehydrogenase (ProDH) KO Reduced open-field behavior, enhanced response to amphetamine and MK801 Diminished PPI     COMT, calcineurin upregulation, reduced D1 and DARPP-32 expression  
Regulator of G-protein Signaling 4 (RGS4) KO   Subtle PPI deficits Impaired working memory      
Retinoic Acid Receptor KO Reduced open field locomotion       Reduced D1R and D2R  
Selectively Bred Low PPI Wistar Rats Reduced motivation PPI deficits, reduced startle habituation Enhanced perseverative behavior Decreased social interaction    
Serine Racemase Targeted Disruption Hyperactive   Impaired spatial memory   Lack ability to produce D-Serine; altered glutamatergic neurotransmission  
SNAP 25 Mutant Mouse Deficit in exploratory behavior PPI deficit   No social interaction deficit    
SREB2 Transgenic Mice   PPI impairments Contextual memory deficits in fear-conditioning task Decreased social interaction Overexpression of SREB2 (GPCR85) in forebrain; Reduced brain weight, increased ventricular volume  
STOP KO Hyperactive; alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission in the mesolimbic pathway Disrupted PPI Deficits in short term memory and spatial learning; deficits in long-term memory and object recognition Deficits in social learning and recognition Enlarged ventricles; reduced volume of cortex and diencephalon; hypoglutamatergic activity PPI deficit not blocked by clozapine
Synapsin II KO   PPI deficit   Social interaction deficit    
SynGAP Heterozygote Hyperactive; increased stereotype in open field Increased acoustic startle response; reduced PPI Apparent working memory impairment in T-maze alternation task; Decreased fear conditioning Impaired social memory; deficit in social interaction   Clozapine improves hyperactivity
Neuregulin-1 Heterozygous Knockout Of EGF-Like Domain Mice Hyperactive in open field (Duffy; not replicated by Ehrlichman or Moy); normal exploratory behavior No PPI deficit Normal novel object exploration Decreased social interaction (Ehrlichman; increased sociability but decreased social novelty preference found by Moy)    
Neuregulin-1 Type II Hypomorphic Rats Normal activity in open field; impaired habituation in males, enhanced habituation in females Enhanced habituation; PPI deficit in females     Increased basal corticosterone levels  
Neuregulin-1 Heterozygous Knockout Of Ig-Like Domain Mice Normal activity in open field   Impaired latent inhibition     Clozapine reduced activity in open field
Neuregulin-1 Overexpression In Mice Hyperactive in novel setting (Kato; not found by Deakin); impaired performance on rotarod Increased startle response and PPI deficits (Deakin, not found by Kato) Impaired context-dependent fear conditioning Impaired nest-building; decreased social interaction, increased aggression    
Erb2/4 CNS KO Mice Normal locomotor behavior PPI deficit in males only   Increased aggression Reduced dendritic spine density Clozapine reduced behavioral changes
Grin1D481N NR1 Point Mutation   Persistent latent inhibition; no PPI deficit; increased startle reactivity Spatial recognition impairments Social approach deficits Reduced NMDAR glycine affinity; reduced LTP in hippocampus Phenotype reversed by D-serine treatment as well as D-amino acid oxidase gene deletion
Combined Grin D481N/K483Q Point Mutation Nonhabituating hyperactivity Increased startle response, no PPI deficit Impaired spatial learning Impaired nest building Reduced NMDAR glycine affinity; reduced LTP in hippocampus Clozapine and haloperidol did not reduce hyperactivity
Disc1tr (truncated, exons 1-8) Mouse Increased immobility Impaired conditioning of latent inhibition     Enlarged ventricles; reduced Parvalbumin neurons in hippocampus & mPFC  
DISC1 Dominant-Negative Transgenic Mice Hyperactive in open field No PPI deficit No impairment in working memory in T-maze or spatial learning in water maze Impaired social interaction Decreased cortical parvalbumin-containing cells  
DISC1 L100P Missense Mutation Increased locomotor activity; enhanced response to amphetamine Disrupted PPI; Decreased startle amplitude Working memory impaired in T-maze; normal spatial learning in water maze   Reduced brain volume; reduced dendritic spine density; increased striatal dopamine receptors Clozapine and haloperidol reversed PPI deficit; genetic inactivation of GSK-3alpha improves PPI, hyperactivity and dendritic spine abnormalities
AMPA GluR4 KO mice Normal activity in open field; increased sensitivity to MK-801 Reduced startle response; PPI deficits Impaired spatial learning, but enhanced performance in reversal learning Increased social interaction with familiar cagemate    
NCAM-EC overexpressing mice Hyperactive in open field; enhanced response to amphetamine and MK-801 PPI deficit Decreased LTP in PFC, normal LTP in HPC; impaired working memory Normal sociability Abnormal GABAergic interneurons PPI deficit reversed by clozapine but not haloperidol
Beta-arrestin 2 KO Decreased locomotor response to amphetamine       Normal DARRPP-32 phosphorylation after amphetamine  
D-Amino Acid Oxidase Deficient Mice-ddy/DAO Strain Hypoactive in open field; attenuated response to PCP Increased startle amplitude; no PPI deficit (Almond; enhanced PPI found by Zhang)        
Densin-180 (LRRC7) KO mice Hypoactive in familiar setting; hyperactive in novel setting PPI deficits Impaired spatial memory; Impaired novel object recognition Impaired nest-building; increased aggression Impaired LTD; altered morphology of dendritic spines  
FGFR1 Catecholaminergic Neuron Targeted Knockout Mice Hyperactive in open field Increased startle response; PPI deficits   Decreased social interaction Increased striatal dopamine metabolites PPI deficit reversed with flupenthixol, quetiapine and clozapine; clozapine did not reduce hyperactivity
Fut8 (alpha1,6-fucosyltransferase) KO Mice Hyperactive in novel setting PPI deficit Impaired working memory Decreased social interaction   Hyperactivity reduced by haloperidol
Glutamate-Cysteine-Ligase Modifier (GCLM) KO Mice Hyperactive in novel setting (Kulak; not found by Cole); potentiated locomotor response to amphetamine No PPI deficits (Cole); mild PPI deficit (Kulak) Normal spatial working memory and spatial learning Abnormal social preference (Kulak) Glutathione deficiency  
Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II (GCP II) Heterozygous KO Mice Hyperactive in open field No PPI deficit Mild impairment in spatial working memory Decreased social interaction    
HB-EGF Forebrain-Specific KO Mice Hyperactive in novel setting and home cage PPI deficits Impaired novel object recognition Decreased social interaction Reduced dopamine, serotonin, PSD-95 and NR1 in prefrontal cortex Hyperactivity reduced by haloperidol and clozapine; PPI deficits reduced by risperidone and clozapine; clozapine but not haloperidol improved social behavior
Imprinting Center Deletion Model Of PWS Hypoactive in open field Increased acoustic startle; PPI deficit Impaired attention in serial reaction time task      
LPA1 Receptor KO mice Reduced activity in novel setting; impaired habituation PPI deficit Impaired spatial working and reference memory   Abnormal expression and phosphorylation of NMDA and AMPA subunits  
LRRTM1 KO Mice Hypoactive in novel settings   Deficit in spatial memory in water maze task Deficit in social recognition Reduced hippocampal volume and synaptic density  
Midkine (Mdk) KO Mice Normal activity in open field PPI deficit Normal novel object recognition Decreased social contacts, but increased time per contact Reduced dopamine, D1R and D2R in striatum  
Neuropeptide Y Receptor 1 (Y1) KO mice   Reduced startle response; impaired habituation; no PPI deficit        
Neuropeptide Y Receptor 2 (Y2) Knockout mice Hyperactive in open field PPI in males Normal working memory and reference memory Increased social interaction in males    
Printable versionPrintable version Unless otherwise specified, organism is mouse.
Name DA-related behavior Gating Cognitive behavior Social behavior Molecular and/or Morphological Signature Response to APD
mhDISC1 and polyI:C exposure Increased activity in periphery of open field No PPI deficit No interaction effects on novel object recognition; sptial working memory in Y maze, or spatial learning in water maze Lack of preference for sniffing mouse vs inanimate object; normal social novelty preference PolyI:C exposure on gestation day 9; genotype affected cytokine upregulation in response to immune challenge; reduced hippocampal dendritic spine density; attenuated corticosterone response to restraint stress  
Complexin II KO and parietal neurotrauma No interaction effect on open field behavior No interaction effect on PPI; increase in startle amplitude Spatial memory deficit No interaction effect on social interaction Reduced hippocampal volume  
COMT KO and chronic THC exposure Increased hyperactivity in open field in males   No interaction effect on object recognition; increased spatial working memory impairment No interaction effects on social interaction or social novelty preference    
GAD67 heterozygous KO and prenatal stress         Increased fetal corticosterone level and decreased fetal weight  
Nurr1 heterozygous KO and polyI:C exposure Hyperactive in open field Increased PPI deficit Impaired attentional shifting; no interaction effect on spatial working memory   Decreased accumbal D2 receptors; decreased PFC tyrosine hydroxylase expression; increased PFC COMT expression  
PACAP KO mice and early life social isolation Hyperactive in open field No interaction effect on PPI or startle amplitude   Increased aggression    
Snap-25 heterozygous KO/bdr and prenatal stress No interaction on open field activity PNS/Bdr mice had increased deficit in PPI No interaction effect on short-term memory in Y maze task; no effect on novel object recognition Decreased social interaction and impaired social novelty preference in PNS/Bdr mice   Clozapine improved PPI deficit in PDS/Bdr
DN-DISC1 and PolyI:C exposure Hypersensitive to MK-801   Impaired object recognition; impaired fear conditioning Decreased social interaction; impaired social recognition PolyI :C exposure on postnatal days 2-6; Decreased GABAergic interneurons in mPFC Clozapine normalized sensitivity to MK-801 as well as cognitive impairment; did not improve social deficits
Printable versionPrintable version Unless otherwise specified, organism is mouse.
Name DA-related behavior Gating Cognitive behavior Social behavior Molecular and/or Morphological Signature Response to APD
Neonatal NGF-Induced Frontal Cortex Lesion Hyperactivity     Social interaction deficit    
Neonatal Ventral Hippocampal Lesion Enhanced locomotor responses to amphetamine with post-pubertal onset; enhanced meth-amphetamine self-administration Disrupted PPI; prolonged N40 latency Various impairments in learning and memory (including set-shifting and spatial working memory) Impaired social behavior Reduced presynaptic protein and growth factor expression, reduced NMDA receptor expression, impaired DA receptor expression in frontal cortex; impaired maturation of PFC; brain region- and age-specific changes in GABAA receptor expression; reduced PFC spine density; enhanced sensitivity to nicotine; increased prefrontal DA output Locomotor responses blocked by APD, social impairments blocked by clozapine but not haloperidol; clozapine reversed enhanced novelty-induced locomotor activity and rescued neuronal atrophy in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens
Neonatal Amygdalar Lesion Enhanced amphetamine or apomorphine induced locomotion; increased novelty induced locomotor activity Increased acoustic startle response but impair PPI on animals lesioned on PND 7 but not PND 21; abnormally persistent latent inhibition Impaired place navigation and spatial ability (not found by all studies); impaired spatial alternation and food hoarding Social behaviors diminished in animals lesioned on PND 7 but not 21 but ventral HPC lesions did not affect social behavior Increased lateral ventricular volume; reduced density of D1- and D2-like but not D3-like receptors and increased DA turnover in mesolimbic but not striatal regions; decreased spine density in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens  
Printable versionPrintable version
Amar S, Jones BC, Nadri C, Kozlovsky N, Belmaker RH, Agam G. Genetic correlational analysis of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta and prepulse inhibition in inbred mice. Genes Brain Behav . 2004 Jun 1 ; 3(3):178-80. Abstract
Ballmaier M, Zoli M, Leo G, Agnati LF, Spano P. Preferential alterations in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway of heterozygous reeler mice: an emerging animal-based model of schizophrenia. Eur J Neurosci . 2002 Apr 1 ; 15(7):1197-205. Abstract

Costa E, Davis J, Pesold C, Tueting P, Guidotti A. The heterozygote reeler mouse as a model for the development of a new generation of antipsychotics. Curr Opin Pharmacol . 2002 Feb 1 ; 2(1):56-62. Abstract

Podhorna J, Didriksen M. The heterozygous reeler mouse: behavioural phenotype. Behav Brain Res . 2004 Aug 12 ; 153(1):43-54. Abstract
Bannerman DM, Deacon RM, Brady S, Bruce A, Sprengel R, Seeburg PH, Rawlins JN. A comparison of GluR-A-deficient and wild-type mice on a test battery assessing sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive behaviors. Behav Neurosci . 2004 Jun 1 ; 118(3):643-7. Abstract

Wiedholz LM, Owens WA, Horton RE, Feyder M, Karlsson RM, Hefner K, Sprengel R, Celikel T, Daws LC, Holmes A. Mice lacking the AMPA GluR1 receptor exhibit striatal hyperdopaminergia and 'schizophrenia-related' behaviors. Mol Psychiatry . 2008 Jun 1 ; 13(6):631-40. Abstract
Beaulieu JM, Sotnikova TD, Marion S, Lefkowitz RJ, Gainetdinov RR, Caron MG. An Akt/beta-arrestin 2/PP2A signaling complex mediates dopaminergic neurotransmission and behavior. Cell . 2005 Jul 29 ; 122(2):261-73. Abstract
Beglopoulos V, Montag-Sallaz M, Rohlmann A, Piechotta K, Ahmad M, Montag D, Missler M. Neurexophilin 3 is highly localized in cortical and cerebellar regions and is functionally important for sensorimotor gating and motor coordination. Mol Cell Biol . 2005 Aug 1 ; 25(16):7278-88. Abstract
Behan AT, van den Hove DL, Mueller L, Jetten MJ, Steinbusch HW, Cotter DR, Prickaerts J. Evidence of female-specific glial deficits in the hippocampus in a mouse model of prenatal stress. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol . 2011 Jan ; 21(1):71-9. Abstract

Pascual R, Ebner D, Araneda R, Urqueta MJ, Bustamante C. Maternal stress induces long-lasting Purkinje cell developmental impairments in mouse offspring. Eur J Pediatr . 2010 Dec ; 169(12):1517-22. Abstract

Matrisciano F, Tueting P, Dalal I, Kadriu B, Grayson DR, Davis JM, Nicoletti F, Guidotti A. Epigenetic modifications of GABAergic interneurons are associated with the schizophrenia-like phenotype induced by prenatal stress in mice. Neuropharmacology . 2012 Apr 28. Abstract

Matrisciano F, Tueting P, Maccari S, Nicoletti F, Guidotti A. Pharmacological activation of group-II metabotropic glutamate receptors corrects a schizophrenia-like phenotype induced by prenatal stress in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology . 2012 Mar ; 37(4):929-38. Abstract

Stevens HE, Su T, Yanagawa Y, Vaccarino FM. Prenatal stress delays inhibitory neuron progenitor migration in the developing neocortex. Psychoneuroendocrinology . 2013 Apr ; 38(4):509-21. Abstract
Berretta S, Munno DW, Benes FM. Amygdalar activation alters the hippocampal GABA system: 'partial' modelling for postmortem changes in schizophrenia. J Comp Neurol . 2001 Mar 5 ; 431(2):129-38. Abstract

Gisabella B, Bolshakov VY, Benes FM. Regulation of synaptic plasticity in a schizophrenia model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 2005 Sep 13 ; 102(37):13301-6. Abstract

Berretta S, Benes FM. A rat model for neural circuitry abnormalities in schizophrenia. Nat Protoc . 2006 Jan 1 ; 1(2):833-9. Abstract
Bielsky IF, Hu SB, Ren X, Terwilliger EF, Young LJ. The V1a vasopressin receptor is necessary and sufficient for normal social recognition: a gene replacement study. Neuron . 2005 Aug 18 ; 47(4):503-13. Abstract
Boksa P. Animal models of obstetric complications in relation to schizophrenia. Brain Res Brain Res Rev . 2004 Apr 1 ; 45(1):1-17. Abstract

Hoeger H, Engelmann M, Bernert G, Seidl R, Bubna-Littitz H, Mosgoeller W, Lubec B, Lubec G. Long term neurological and behavioral effects of graded perinatal asphyxia in the rat. Life Sci . 2000 Jan 1 ; 66(10):947-62. Abstract

Wakuda T, Matsuzaki H, Suzuki K, Iwata Y, Shinmura C, Suda S, Iwata K, Yamamoto S, Sugihara G, Tsuchiya KJ, Ueki T, Nakamura K, Nakahara D, Takei N, Mori N. Perinatal asphyxia reduces dentate granule cells and exacerbates methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in adulthood. PLoS ONE . 2008 Jan 1 ; 3(11):e3648. Abstract

Juárez I, Gratton A, Flores G. Ontogeny of altered dendritic morphology in the rat prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens following Cesarean delivery and birth anoxia. J Comp Neurol . 2008 Apr 10 ; 507(5):1734-47. Abstract

Fendt M, Lex A, Falkai P, Henn FA, Schmitt A. Behavioural alterations in rats following neonatal hypoxia and effects of clozapine: implications for schizophrenia. Pharmacopsychiatry . 2008 Jul ; 41(4):138-45. Abstract

Sommer JU, Schmitt A, Heck M, Schaeffer EL, Fendt M, Zink M, Nieselt K, Symons S, Petroianu G, Lex A, Herrera-Marschitz M, Spanagel R, Falkai P, Gebicke-Haerter PJ. Differential expression of presynaptic genes in a rat model of postnatal hypoxia: relevance to schizophrenia. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci . 2010 Nov ; 260 Suppl 2():S81-9. Abstract

Schaeffer EL, Kühn F, Schmitt A, Gattaz WF, Gruber O, Schneider-Axmann T, Falkai P, Schmitt A. Increased cell proliferation in the rat anterior cingulate cortex following neonatal hypoxia: relevance to schizophrenia. J Neural Transm . 2013 Jan ; 120(1):187-95. Abstract
Borrell J, Vela JM, Arévalo-Martin A, Molina-Holgado E, Guaza C. Prenatal immune challenge disrupts sensorimotor gating in adult rats. Implications for the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology . 2002 Feb 1 ; 26(2):204-15. Abstract

Baharnoori M, Brake WG, Srivastava LK. Prenatal immune challenge induces developmental changes in the morphology of pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in rats. Schizophr Res . 2009 Jan 1 ; 107(1):99-109. Abstract

Fortier ME, Joober R, Luheshi GN, Boksa P. Maternal exposure to bacterial endotoxin during pregnancy enhances amphetamine-induced locomotion and startle responses in adult rat offspring. J Psychiatr Res . 2004 May-Jun ; 38(3):335-45. Abstract

Fortier ME, Luheshi GN, Boksa P. Effects of prenatal infection on prepulse inhibition in the rat depend on the nature of the infectious agent and the stage of pregnancy. Behav Brain Res . 2007 Aug 6 ; 181(2):270-7. Abstract

Hava G, Vered L, Yael M, Mordechai H, Mahoud H. Alterations in behavior in adult offspring mice following maternal inflammation during pregnancy. Dev Psychobiol . 2006 Mar 1 ; 48(2):162-8. Abstract

Romero E, Ali C, Molina-Holgado E, Castellano B, Guaza C, Borrell J. Neurobehavioral and immunological consequences of prenatal immune activation in rats. Influence of antipsychotics. Neuropsychopharmacology . 2007 Aug 1 ; 32(8):1791-804. Abstract

Romero E, Guaza C, Castellano B, Borrell J. Ontogeny of sensorimotor gating and immune impairment induced by prenatal immune challenge in rats: implications for the etiopathology of schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry . 2008 Apr 15. Abstract

Jenkins TA, Harte MK, Stenson G, Reynolds GP. Neonatal lipopolysaccharide induces pathological changes in parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of the rat. Behav Brain Res . 2009 Dec 28 ; 205(2):355-9. Abstract

Oskvig DB, Elkahloun AG, Johnson KR, Phillips TM, Herkenham M. Maternal immune activation by LPS selectively alters specific gene expression profiles of interneuron migration and oxidative stress in the fetus without triggering a fetal immune response. Brain Behav Immun . 2012 May ; 26(4):623-34. Abstract
Brody SA, Conquet F, Geyer MA. Disruption of prepulse inhibition in mice lacking mGluR1. Eur J Neurosci . 2003 Dec 1 ; 18(12):3361-6. Abstract
Daenen EW, Wolterink G, Gerrits MA, van Ree JM. The effects of neonatal lesions in the amygdala or ventral hippocampus on social behaviour later in life. Behav Brain Res. 2002 Nov 15 ; 136(2):571-82. Abstract

Daenen EW, Wolterink G, Van Der Heyden JA, Kruse CG, van Ree JM. Neonatal lesions in the amygdala or ventral hippocampus disrupt prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response; implications for an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders like schizophrenia. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2003 May 1 ; 13(3):187-97. Abstract

Hanlon FM, Sutherland RJ. Changes in adult brain and behavior caused by neonatal limbic damage: implications for the etiology of schizophrenia. Behav Brain Res. 2000 Jan 1 ; 107(1-2):71-83. Abstract

Weiner I. The 'two-headed' latent inhibition model of schizophrenia: modeling positive and negative symptoms and their treatment. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2003 Sep 1 ; 169(3-4):257-97. Abstract

Diergaarde L, Gerrits MA, Brouwers JP, van Ree JM. Early amygdala damage disrupts performance on medial prefrontal cortex-related tasks but spares spatial learning and memory in the rat. Neuroscience. 2005 Jan 1 ; 130(3):581-90. Abstract

Bouwmeester H, Gerrits MA, Roozemond JG, Snapper J, Ronken E, Kruse CG, Westenberg HG, van Ree JM. Neonatal basolateral amygdala lesions affect monoamine and cannabinoid brain systems in adult rats. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2007 Dec 1 ; 10(6):727-39. Abstract

Solis O, Vázquez-Roque RA, Camacho-Abrego I, Gamboa C, de la Cruz F, Zamudio S, Flores G. Decreased dendritic spine density of neurons of the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens and enhanced amphetamine sensitivity in postpubertal rats after a neonatal amygdala lesion. Synapse . 2009 Dec ; 63(12):1143-53. Abstract

Vázquez-Roque RA, Solis O, Camacho-Abrego I, Rodríguez-Moreno A, Cruz Fde L, Zamudio S, Flores G. Dendritic morphology of neurons in prefrontal cortex and ventral hippocampus of rats with neonatal amygdala lesion. Synapse . 2012 May ; 66(5):373-82. Abstract
Dejaegere T, Serneels L, Schäfer MK, Van Biervliet J, Horré K, Depboylu C, Alvarez-Fischer D, Herreman A, Willem M, Haass C, Höglinger GU, D'Hooge R, De Strooper B. Deficiency of Aph1B/C-gamma-secretase disturbs Nrg1 cleavage and sensorimotor gating that can be reversed with antipsychotic treatment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 2008 Jul 15 ; 105(28):9775-80. Abstract
Ellenbroek BA, Cools AR. Apomorphine susceptibility and animal models for psychopathology: genes and environment. Behav Genet . 2002 Sep 1 ; 32(5):349-61. Abstract
Ellenbroek BA, van den Kroonenberg PT, Cools AR. The effects of an early stressful life event on sensorimotor gating in adult rats. Schizophr Res . 1998 Apr 10 ; 30(3):251-60. Abstract

López-Gallardo M, Llorente R, Llorente-Berzal A, Marco EM, Prada C, Di Marzo V, Viveros MP. Neuronal and glial alterations in the cerebellar cortex of maternally deprived rats: gender differences and modulatory effects of two inhibitors of endocannabinoid inactivation. Dev Neurobiol . 2008 Oct 1 ; 68(12):1429-40. Abstract

Llorente R, Llorente-Berzal A, Petrosino S, Marco EM, Guaza C, Prada C, López-Gallardo M, Di Marzo V, Viveros MP. Gender-dependent cellular and biochemical effects of maternal deprivation on the hippocampus of neonatal rats: A possible role for the endocannabinoid system. Dev Neurobiol . 2008 Sep 15 ; 68(11):1334-47. Abstract

Llorente R, Gallardo ML, Berzal AL, Prada C, Garcia-Segura LM, Viveros MP. Early maternal deprivation in rats induces gender-dependent effects on developing hippocampal and cerebellar cells. Int J Dev Neurosci . 2009 May ; 27(3):233-41. Abstract

Llorente R, O'Shea E, Gutierrez-Lopez MD, Llorente-Berzal A, Colado MI, Viveros MP. Sex-dependent maternal deprivation effects on brain monoamine content in adolescent rats. Neurosci Lett . 2010 Jul 26 ; 479(2):112-7. Abstract

Suárez J, Llorente R, Romero-Zerbo SY, Mateos B, Bermúdez-Silva FJ, de Fonseca FR, Viveros MP. Early maternal deprivation induces gender-dependent changes on the expression of hippocampal CB(1) and CB(2) cannabinoid receptors of neonatal rats. Hippocampus . 2008 Dec 29. Abstract
Emamian ES, Hall D, Birnbaum MJ, Karayiorgou M, Gogos JA. Convergent evidence for impaired AKT1-GSK3beta signaling in schizophrenia. Nat Genet . 2004 Feb ; 36(2):131-7. Abstract
Erbel-Sieler C, Dudley C, Zhou Y, Wu X, Estill SJ, Han T, Diaz-Arrastia R, Brunskill EW, Potter SS, McKnight SL. Behavioral and regulatory abnormalities in mice deficient in the NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 2004 Sep 14 ; 101(37):13648-53. Abstract

Pieper AA, Wu X, Han TW, Estill SJ, Dang Q, Wu LC, Reece-Fincanon S, Dudley CA, Richardson JA, Brat DJ, McKnight SL. The neuronal PAS domain protein 3 transcription factor controls FGF-mediated adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 2005 Sep 27 ; 102(39):14052-7. Abstract
Fatemi SH, Emamian ES, Kist D, Sidwell RW, Nakajima K, Akhter P, Shier A, Sheikh S, Bailey K. Defective corticogenesis and reduction in Reelin immunoreactivity in cortex and hippocampus of prenatally infected neonatal mice. Mol Psychiatry. 1999 Mar 1; 4(2):145-54. Abstract

Shi L, Fatemi SH, Sidwell RW, Patterson PH. Maternal influenza infection causes marked behavioral and pharmacological changes in the offspring. J Neurosci . 2003 Jan 1 ; 23(1):297-302. Abstract

Fatemi SH, Pearce DA, Brooks AI, Sidwell RW. Prenatal viral infection in mouse causes differential expression of genes in brains of mouse progeny: a potential animal model for schizophrenia and autism. Synapse. 2005 Aug 1; 57(2):91-9. Abstract

Fatemi SH, Reutiman TJ, Folsom TD, Huang H, Oishi K, Mori S, Smee DF, Pearce DA, Winter C, Sohr R, Juckel G. Maternal infection leads to abnormal gene regulation and brain atrophy in mouse offspring: implications for genesis of neurodevelopmental disorders. Schizophr Res . 2008 Feb 1 ; 99(1-3):56-70. Abstract

Winter C, Reutiman TJ, Folsom TD, Sohr R, Wolf RJ, Juckel G, Fatemi SH. Dopamine and serotonin levels following prenatal viral infection in mouse--implications for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008 Oct 1; 18(10):712-6. Abstract

Moreno JL, Kurita M, Holloway T, López J, Cadagan R, Martínez-Sobrido L, García-Sastre A, González-Maeso J. Maternal influenza viral infection causes schizophrenia-like alterations of 5-HT2A and mGlu2 receptors in the adult offspring. J Neurosci. 2011;31(5):1863-72. Abstract
Ferguson JN, Aldag JM, Insel TR, Young LJ. Oxytocin in the medial amygdala is essential for social recognition in the mouse. J Neurosci . 2001 Oct 15 ; 21(20):8278-85. Abstract

Takayanagi Y, Yoshida M, Bielsky IF, Ross HE, Kawamata M, Onaka T, Yanagisawa T, Kimura T, Matzuk MM, Young LJ, Nishimori K. Pervasive social deficits, but normal parturition, in oxytocin receptor-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 2005 Nov 1 ; 102(44):16096-101. Abstract
Fradley RL, O'Meara GF, Newman RJ, Andrieux A, Job D, Reynolds DS. STOP knockout and NMDA NR1 hypomorphic mice exhibit deficits in sensorimotor gating. Behav Brain Res . 2005 Sep 8 ; 163(2):257-64. Abstract
Geyer MA, Wilkinson LS, Humby T, Robbins TW. Isolation rearing of rats produces a deficit in prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle similar to that in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry . 1993 Sep 15 ; 34(6):361-72. Abstract

Varty GB, Geyer MA. Effects of isolation rearing on startle reactivity, habituation, and prepulse inhibition in male Lewis, Sprague-Dawley, and Fischer F344 rats. Behav Neurosci . 1998 Dec 1 ; 112(6):1450-7. Abstract

Weiss IC, Di Iorio L, Feldon J, Domeney AM. Strain differences in the isolation-induced effects on prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response and on locomotor activity. Behav Neurosci . 2000 Apr 1 ; 114(2):364-73. Abstract

Heidbreder CA, Weiss IC, Domeney AM, Pryce C, Homberg J, Hedou G, Feldon J, Moran MC, Nelson P. Behavioral, neurochemical and endocrinological characterization of the early social isolation syndrome. Neuroscience . 2000 Jan 1 ; 100(4):749-68. Abstract

Day-Wilson KM, Jones DN, Southam E, Cilia J, Totterdell S. Medial prefrontal cortex volume loss in rats with isolation rearing-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle. Neuroscience . 2006 Sep 1 ; 141(3):1113-21. Abstract

Ferdman N, Murmu RP, Bock J, Braun K, Leshem M. Weaning age, social isolation, and gender, interact to determine adult explorative and social behavior, and dendritic and spine morphology in prefrontal cortex of rats. Behav Brain Res . 2007 Jun 18 ; 180(2):174-82. Abstract

Roncada P, Bortolato M, Frau R, Saba P, Flore G, Soggiu A, Pisanu S, Amoresano A, Carpentieri A, Devoto P. Gating deficits in isolation-reared rats are correlated with alterations in protein expression in nucleus accumbens. J Neurochem . 2009 Feb 1 ; 108(3):611-20. Abstract

McLean S, Grayson B, Harris M, Protheroe C, Bate S, Woolley M, Neill J. Isolation rearing impairs novel object recognition and attentional set shifting performance in female rats. J Psychopharmacol . 2008 Nov 21. Abstract

Bloomfield C, French SJ, Jones DN, Reavill C, Southam E, Cilia J, Totterdell S. Chandelier cartridges in the prefrontal cortex are reduced in isolation reared rats. Synapse . 2008 Aug 1 ; 62(8):628-31. Abstract

Fone KC, Porkess MV. Behavioural and neurochemical effects of post-weaning social isolation in rodents-relevance to developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. Neurosci Biobehav Rev . 2008 Aug 1 ; 32(6):1087-102. Abstract

Alquicer G, Morales-Medina JC, Quirion R, Flores G. Postweaning social isolation enhances morphological changes in the neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion rat model of psychosis. J Chem Neuroanat . 2008 Mar 1 ; 35(2):179-87. Abstract
Glynn D, Drew CJ, Reim K, Brose N, Morton AJ. Profound ataxia in complexin I knockout mice masks a complex phenotype that includes exploratory and habituation deficits. Hum Mol Genet . 2005 Aug 15 ; 14(16):2369-85. Abstract
Gogos JA, Morgan M, Luine V, Santha M, Ogawa S, Pfaff D, Karayiorgou M. Catechol-O-methyltransferase-deficient mice exhibit sexually dimorphic changes in catecholamine levels and behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 1998 Aug 18 ; 95(17):9991-6. Abstract

Huotari M, García-Horsman JA, Karayiorgou M, Gogos JA, Männistö PT. D-amphetamine responses in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) disrupted mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl) . 2004 Feb 1 ; 172(1):1-10. Abstract
Gogos JA, Santha M, Takacs Z, Beck KD, Luine V, Lucas LR, Nadler JV, Karayiorgou M. The gene encoding proline dehydrogenase modulates sensorimotor gating in mice. Nat Genet . 1999 Apr 1 ; 21(4):434-9. Abstract

Paterlini M, Zakharenko SS, Lai WS, Qin J, Zhang H, Mukai J, Westphal KG, Olivier B, Sulzer D, Pavlidis P, Siegelbaum SA, Karayiorgou M, Gogos JA. Transcriptional and behavioral interaction between 22q11.2 orthologs modulates schizophrenia-related phenotypes in mice. Nat Neurosci . 2005 Nov 1 ; 8(11):1586-94. Abstract
Gourevitch R, Rocher C, Le Pen G, Krebs MO, Jay TM. Working memory deficits in adult rats after prenatal disruption of neurogenesis. Behav Pharmacol . 2004 Jul 1 ; 15(4):287-92. Abstract

Flagstad P, Mřrk A, Glenthřj BY, van Beek J, Michael-Titus AT, Didriksen M. Disruption of neurogenesis on gestational day 17 in the rat causes behavioral changes relevant to positive and negative schizophrenia symptoms and alters amphetamine-induced dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Neuropsychopharmacology . 2004 Nov 1 ; 29(11):2052-64. Abstract

Elmer GI, Sydnor J, Guard H, Hercher E, Vogel MW. Altered prepulse inhibition in rats treated prenatally with the antimitotic Ara-C: an animal model for sensorimotor gating deficits in schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology (Berl) . 2004 Jul 1 ; 174(2):177-89. Abstract

Moore H, Jentsch JD, Ghajarnia M, Geyer MA, Grace AA. A neurobehavioral systems analysis of adult rats exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate on E17: implications for the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry . 2006 Aug 1 ; 60(3):253-64. Abstract

Featherstone RE, Rizos Z, Nobrega JN, Kapur S, Fletcher PJ. Gestational methylazoxymethanol acetate treatment impairs select cognitive functions: parallels to schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology . 2007 Feb 1 ; 32(2):483-92. Abstract

Le Pen G, Jay TM, Krebs MO. Effect of antipsychotics on spontaneous hyperactivity and hypersensitivity to MK-801-induced hyperactivity in rats prenatally exposed to methylazoxymethanol. J Psychopharmacol . 2011 Jun ; 25(6):822-35. Abstract

Chin CL, Curzon P, Schwartz AJ, O'Connor EM, Rueter LE, Fox GB, Day M, Basso AM. Structural abnormalities revealed by magnetic resonance imaging in rats prenatally exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate parallel cerebral pathology in schizophrenia. Synapse . 2011 May ; 65(5):393-403. Abstract

Hradetzky E, Sanderson TM, Tsang TM, Sherwood JL, Fitzjohn SM, Lakics V, Malik N, Schoeffmann S, O'Neill MJ, Cheng TM, Harris LW, Rahmoune H, Guest PC, Sher E, Collingridge GL, Holmes E, Tricklebank MD, Bahn S. The methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM-E17) rat model: molecular and functional effects in the hippocampus. Neuropsychopharmacology . 2012 Jan ; 37(2):364-77. Abstract
Grillet N, Pattyn A, Contet C, Kieffer BL, Goridis C, Brunet JF. Generation and characterization of Rgs4 mutant mice. Mol Cell Biol . 2005 May 1 ; 25(10):4221-8.Abstract
Haller J, Szirmai M, Varga B, Ledent C, Freund TF. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor dependent effects of the NMDA antagonist phencyclidine in the social withdrawal model of schizophrenia. Behav Pharmacol . 2005 Sep 1 ; 16(5-6):415-22. Abstract
Henry C, Kabbaj M, Simon H, Le Moal M, Maccari S. Prenatal stress increases the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis response in young and adult rats. J Neuroendocrinol . 1994 Jun ; 6(3):341-5. Abstract

Maccari S, Piazza PV, Kabbaj M, Barbazanges A, Simon H, Le Moal M. Adoption reverses the long-term impairment in glucocorticoid feedback induced by prenatal stress. J Neurosci . 1995 Jan ; 15(1 Pt 1):110-6. Abstract

Vallée M, Maccari S, Dellu F, Simon H, Le Moal M, Mayo W. Long-term effects of prenatal stress and postnatal handling on age-related glucocorticoid secretion and cognitive performance: a longitudinal study in the rat. Eur J Neurosci . 1999 Aug ; 11(8):2906-16. Abstract

Lemaire V, Koehl M, Le Moal M, Abrous DN. Prenatal stress produces learning deficits associated with an inhibition of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 2000 Sep 26 ; 97(20):11032-7. Abstract

Shalev U, Weiner I. Gender-dependent differences in latent inhibition following prenatal stress and corticosterone administration. Behav Brain Res . 2001 Nov 29 ; 126(1-2):57-63. Abstract

Burton C, Lovic V, Fleming AS. Early adversity alters attention and locomotion in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Behav Neurosci . 2006 Jun ; 120(3):665-75. Abstract

Maccari S, Morley-Fletcher S. Effects of prenatal restraint stress on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and related behavioural and neurobiological alterations. Psychoneuroendocrinology . 2007 Aug ; 32 Suppl 1():S10-5. Abstract

Berger MA, Barros VG, Sarchi MI, Tarazi FI, Antonelli MC. Long-term effects of prenatal stress on dopamine and glutamate receptors in adult rat brain. Neurochem Res . 2002 Nov ; 27(11):1525-33. Abstract

Silvagni A, Barros VG, Mura C, Antonelli MC, Carboni E. Prenatal restraint stress differentially modifies basal and stimulated dopamine and noradrenaline release in the nucleus accumbens shell: an 'in vivo' microdialysis study in adolescent and young adult rats. Eur J Neurosci . 2008 Aug ; 28(4):744-58. Abstract

Mandyam CD, Crawford EF, Eisch AJ, Rivier CL, Richardson HN. Stress experienced in utero reduces sexual dichotomies in neurogenesis, microenvironment, and cell death in the adult rat hippocampus. Dev Neurobiol . 2008 Apr ; 68(5):575-89. Abstract

Martínez-Téllez RI, Hernández-Torres E, Gamboa C, Flores G. Prenatal stress alters spine density and dendritic length of nucleus accumbens and hippocampus neurons in rat offspring. Synapse . 2009 Sep ; 63(9):794-804. Abstract

Carboni L, Becchi S, Piubelli C, Mallei A, Giambelli R, Razzoli M, Mathé AA, Popoli M, Domenici E. Early-life stress and antidepressants modulate peripheral biomarkers in a gene-environment rat model of depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry . 2010 Aug 16 ; 34(6):1037-48. Abstract
Ikeda M, Hikita T, Taya S, Uraguchi-Asaki J, Toyo-oka K, Wynshaw-Boris A, Ujike H, Inada T, Takao K, Miyakawa T, Ozaki N, Kaibuchi K, Iwata N. Identification of YWHAE, a gene encoding 14-3-3epsilon, as a possible susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Hum Mol Genet . 2008 Oct 15 ; 17(20):3212-22. Abstract
Kesby JP, Burne TH, McGrath JJ, Eyles DW. Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters MK 801-induced hyperlocomotion in the adult rat: An animal model of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry . 2006 Sep 15 ; 60(6):591-6. Abstract

Eyles DW, Rogers F, Buller K, McGrath JJ, Ko P, French K, Burne TH. Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency in the rat alters adult behaviour independently of HPA function. Psychoneuroendocrinology . 2006 Sep 1 ; 31(8):958-64. Abstract

Eyles D, Almeras L, Benech P, Patatian A, Mackay-Sim A, McGrath J, Féron F. Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters the expression of genes encoding mitochondrial, cytoskeletal and synaptic proteins in the adult rat brain. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol . 2007 Mar 1 ; 103(3-5):538-45. Abstract

Féron F, Burne TH, Brown J, Smith E, McGrath JJ, Mackay-Sim A, Eyles DW. Developmental Vitamin D3 deficiency alters the adult rat brain. Brain Res Bull . 2005 Mar 15 ; 65(2):141-8. Abstract

Almeras L, Eyles D, Benech P, Laffite D, Villard C, Patatian A, Boucraut J, Mackay-Sim A, McGrath J, Féron F. Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters brain protein expression in the adult rat: implications for neuropsychiatric disorders. Proteomics . 2007 Mar 1 ; 7(5):769-80. Abstract

McGrath J, Iwazaki T, Eyles D, Burne T, Cui X, Ko P, Matsumoto I. Protein expression in the nucleus accumbens of rats exposed to developmental vitamin D deficiency. PLoS ONE . 2008 Jan 1 ; 3(6):e2383. Abstract

Harms LR, Eyles DW, McGrath JJ, Mackay-Sim A, Burne TH. Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters adult behaviour in 129/SvJ and C57BL/6J mice. Behav Brain Res . 2008 Mar 5 ; 187(2):343-50. Abstract

Keilhoff G, Grecksch G, Becker A. Haloperidol normalized prenatal vitamin D depletion-induced reduction of hippocampal cell proliferation in adult rats. Neurosci Lett . 2010 May 31 ; 476(2):94-8. Abstract
Kinney GG, Burno M, Campbell UC, Hernandez LM, Rodriguez D, Bristow LJ, Conn PJ. Metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors modulate locomotor activity and sensorimotor gating in rodents. J Pharmacol Exp Ther . 2003 Jul 1 ; 306(1):116-23. Abstract

Brody SA, Dulawa SC, Conquet F, Geyer MA. Assessment of a prepulse inhibition deficit in a mutant mouse lacking mGlu5 receptors. Mol Psychiatry . 2004 Jan 1 ; 9(1):35-41. Abstract
Kinnunen AK, Koenig JI, Bilbe G. Repeated variable prenatal stress alters pre- and postsynaptic gene expression in the rat frontal pole. J Neurochem . 2003 Aug 1 ; 86(3):736-48. Abstract

Koenig JI, Elmer GI, Shepard PD, Lee PR, Mayo C, Joy B, Hercher E, Brady DL. Prenatal exposure to a repeated variable stress paradigm elicits behavioral and neuroendocrinological changes in the adult offspring: potential relevance to schizophrenia. Behav Brain Res . 2005 Jan 30 ; 156(2):251-61. Abstract

Mandyam CD, Crawford EF, Eisch AJ, Rivier CL, Richardson HN. Stress experienced in utero reduces sexual dichotomies in neurogenesis, microenvironment, and cell death in the adult rat hippocampus. Dev. Neurobiol. 68 (5): 575-589. Abstract

Markham JA, Taylor AR, Taylor SB, Bell DB, Koenig JI. Characterization of the cognitive impairments induced by prenatal exposure to stress in the rat. Front Behav Neurosci. 2010;4:173. Abstract

Markham JA, Mullins SE, Koenig JI. Peri-adolescent maturation of the prefrontal cortex is sex-specific and disrupted by prenatal stress. J Comp Neurol. 2012 Abstract

Neeley EW, Berger R, Koenig JI, Leonard S. Strain dependent effects of prenatal stress on gene expression in the rat hippocampus. Physiol Behav. 2011;104(2):334-9. Abstract

Wilson CA, Schade R, Terry AV Jr. Variable prenatal stress results in impairments of sustained attention and inhibitory response control in a 5-choice serial reaction time task in rats. Neuroscience. 2012;218:126-37. Abstract
Krezel W, Ghyselinck N, Samad TA, Dupé V, Kastner P, Borrelli E, Chambon P. Impaired locomotion and dopamine signaling in retinoid receptor mutant mice. Science . 1998 Feb 6 ; 279(5352):863-7. Abstract
Lazar NL, Rajakumar N, Cain DP. Injections of NGF into neonatal frontal cortex decrease social interaction as adults: a rat model of schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2008 Jan 1 ; 34(1):127-36. Abstract
Lijam N, Paylor R, McDonald MP, Crawley JN, Deng CX, Herrup K, Stevens KE, Maccaferri G, McBain CJ, Sussman DJ, Wynshaw-Boris A. Social interaction and sensorimotor gating abnormalities in mice lacking Dvl1. Cell . 1997 Sep 5 ; 90(5):895-905. Abstract
Lipska BK, Weinberger DR. To model a psychiatric disorder in animals: schizophrenia as a reality test. Neuropsychopharmacology . 2000 Sep 1 ; 23(3):223-39. Abstract

Lipska BK. Using animal models to test a neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. J Psychiatry Neurosci . 2004 Jul ; 29(4):282-6. Abstract

Tseng KY, Amin F, Lewis BL, O'Donnell P. Altered prefrontal cortical metabolic response to mesocortical activation in adult animals with a neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion. Biol Psychiatry . 2006 Sep 15 ; 60(6):585-90. Abstract

Tseng KY, Lewis BL, Lipska BK, O'Donnell P. Post-pubertal disruption of medial prefrontal cortical dopamine-glutamate interactions in a developmental animal model of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry . 2007 Oct 1 ; 62(7):730-8. Abstract

Tseng KY, Lewis BL, Hashimoto T, Sesack SR, Kloc M, Lewis DA, O'Donnell P. A neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion causes functional deficits in adult prefrontal cortical interneurons. J Neurosci . 2008 Nov 26 ; 28(48):12691-9. Abstract

Endo K, Hori T, Abe S, Asada T. Alterations in GABA(A) receptor expression in neonatal ventral hippocampal lesioned rats: comparison of prepubertal and postpubertal periods. Synapse . 2007 Jun 1 ; 61(6):357-66. Abstract

Marquis JP, Goulet S, Doré FY. Neonatal ventral hippocampus lesions disrupt extra-dimensional shift and alter dendritic spine density in the medial prefrontal cortex of juvenile rats. Neurobiol Learn Mem . 2008 Sep 1 ; 90(2):339-46. Abstract

Brady AM, McCallum SE, Glick SD, O'Donnell P. Enhanced methamphetamine self-administration in a neurodevelopmental rat model of schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology (Berl) . 2008 Oct 1 ; 200(2):205-15. Abstract

Berg SA, Chambers RA. Accentuated behavioral sensitization to nicotine in the neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion model of schizophrenia. Neuropharmacology . 2008 Jun 1 ; 54(8):1201-7. Abstract

Brady AM. Neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions disrupt set-shifting ability in adult rats. Behav Brain Res . 2009 Dec 14 ; 205(1):294-8. Abstract

Vohs JL, Chambers RA, Krishnan GP, O'Donnell BF, Hetrick WP, Kaiser ST, Berg S, Morzorati SL. Auditory sensory gating in the neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion model of schizophrenia. Neuropsychobiology . 2009 ; 60(1):12-22. Abstract

Brady AM, Saul RD, Wiest MK. Selective deficits in spatial working memory in the neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion rat model of schizophrenia. Neuropharmacology . 2010 Dec ; 59(7-8):605-11. Abstract

Macedo CE, Angst MJ, Gobaille S, Schleef C, Guignard B, Guiberteau T, Louilot A, Sandner G. Prefrontal dopamine release and sensory-specific satiety altered in rats with neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions. Behav Brain Res . 2012 May 16 ; 231(1):97-104. Abstract
Melone M, Bellesi M, Gubbini A, Conti F. GLT-1 up-regulation enhances the effect of PCP on prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex in adult rats. Schizophr Res . 2009 Mar 6. Abstract
Metz GA, Schwab ME. Behavioral characterization in a comprehensive mouse test battery reveals motor and sensory impairments in growth-associated protein-43 null mutant mice. Neuroscience . 2004 Jan 1 ; 129(3):563-74. Abstract
Miner LA, Ostrander M, Sarter M. Effects of ibotenic acid-induced loss of neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex of rats on behavioral vigilance: evidence for executive dysfunction. J Psychopharmacol . 1997 Jan 1 ; 11(2):169-78. Abstract

Wilkinson LS, Dias R, Thomas KL, Augood SJ, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW, Roberts AC. Contrasting effects of excitotoxic lesions of the prefrontal cortex on the behavioural response to D-amphetamine and presynaptic and postsynaptic measures of striatal dopamine function in monkeys. Neuroscience . 1997 Oct 1 ; 80(3):717-30. Abstract

Lipska BK, Al-Amin HA, Weinberger DR. Excitotoxic lesions of the rat medial prefrontal cortex. Effects on abnormal behaviors associated with neonatal hippocampal damage. Neuropsychopharmacology . 1998 Dec 1 ; 19(6):451-64. Abstract

Lacroix L, Spinelli S, White W, Feldon J. The effects of ibotenic acid lesions of the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex on latent inhibition, prepulse inhibition and amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion. Neuroscience . 2000 Jan 1 ; 97(3):459-68. Abstract
Miyakawa T, Leiter LM, Gerber DJ, Gainetdinov RR, Sotnikova TD, Zeng H, Caron MG, Tonegawa S. Conditional calcineurin knockout mice exhibit multiple abnormal behaviors related to schizophrenia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 2003 Jul 22 ; 100(15):8987-92. Abstract
Mohn AR, Gainetdinov RR, Caron MG, Koller BH. Mice with reduced NMDA receptor expression display behaviors related to schizophrenia. Cell . 1999 Aug 20 ; 98(4):427-36. Abstract

Fradley RL, O'Meara GF, Newman RJ, Andrieux A, Job D, Reynolds DS. STOP knockout and NMDA NR1 hypomorphic mice exhibit deficits in sensorimotor gating. Behav Brain Res . 2005 Sep 8 ; 163(2):257-64. Abstract
Mueller BR, Bale TL. Early prenatal stress impact on coping strategies and learning performance is sex dependent. Physiol Behav . 2007 May 16 ; 91(1):55-65. Abstract

Mueller BR, Bale TL. Sex-specific programming of offspring emotionality after stress early in pregnancy. J Neurosci . 2008 Sep 3 ; 28(36):9055-65. Abstract

Morgan CP, Bale TL. Early prenatal stress epigenetically programs dysmasculinization in second-generation offspring via the paternal lineage. J Neurosci . 2011 Aug 17 ; 31(33):11748-55. Abstract
Murotani T, Ishizuka T, Hattori S, Hashimoto R, Matsuzaki S, Yamatodani A. High dopamine turnover in the brains of Sandy mice. Neurosci Lett . 2007 Jun 21 ; 421(1):47-51. Abstract

Bhardwaj SK, Baharnoori M, Sharif-Askari B, Kamath A, Williams S, Srivastava LK. Behavioral characterization of dysbindin-1 deficient sandy mice. Behav Brain Res . 2009 Feb 11 ; 197(2):435-41. Abstract

Takao K, Toyama K, Nakanishi K, Hattori S, Takamura H, Takeda M, Miyakawa T, Hashimoto R. Impaired long-term memory retention and working memory in sdy mutant mice with a deletion in Dtnbp1, a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Mol Brain . 2008 Jan 1 ; 1(1):11. Abstract

Feng YQ, Zhou ZY, He X, Wang H, Guo XL, Hao CJ, Guo Y, Zhen XC, Li W. Dysbindin deficiency in sandy mice causes reduction of snapin and displays behaviors related to schizophrenia. Schizophr Res . 2008 Dec 1 ; 106(2-3):218-28. Abstract

Hattori S, Murotani T, Matsuzaki S, Ishizuka T, Kumamoto N, Takeda M, Tohyama M, Yamatodani A, Kunugi H, Hashimoto R. Behavioral abnormalities and dopamine reductions in sdy mutant mice with a deletion in Dtnbp1, a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun . 2008 Aug 22 ; 373(2):298-302. Abstract

Chen XW, Feng YQ, Hao CJ, Guo XL, He X, Zhou ZY, Guo N, Huang HP, Xiong W, Zheng H, Zuo PL, Zhang CX, Li W, Zhou Z. DTNBP1, a schizophrenia susceptibility gene, affects kinetics of transmitter release. J Cell Biol . 2008 Jun 2 ; 181(5):791-801. Abstract
Palmer AA, Printz DJ, Butler PD, Dulawa SC, Printz MP. Prenatal protein deprivation in rats induces changes in prepulse inhibition and NMDA receptor binding. Brain Res . 2004 Jan 23 ; 996(2):193-201. Abstract

Palmer AA, Brown AS, Keegan D, Siska LD, Susser E, Rotrosen J, Butler PD. Prenatal protein deprivation alters dopamine-mediated behaviors and dopaminergic and glutamatergic receptor binding. Brain Res . 2008 Oct 27 ; 1237():62-74. Abstract
Paylor R, McIlwain KL, McAninch R, Nellis A, Yuva-Paylor LA, Baldini A, Lindsay EA. Mice deleted for the DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome region show abnormal sensorimotor gating and learning and memory impairments. Hum Mol Genet . 2001 Nov 1 ; 10(23):2645-50. Abstract
Reed TM, Repaske DR, Snyder GL, Greengard P, Vorhees CV. Phosphodiesterase 1B knock-out mice exhibit exaggerated locomotor hyperactivity and DARPP-32 phosphorylation in response to dopamine agonists and display impaired spatial learning. J Neurosci . 2002 Jun 15 ; 22(12):5188-97. Abstract
Sakae N, Yamasaki N, Kitaichi K, Fukuda T, Yamada M, Yoshikawa H, Hiranita T, Tatsumi Y, Kira J, Yamamoto T, Miyakawa T, Nakayama KI. Mice lacking the schizophrenia-associated protein FEZ1 manifest hyperactivity and enhanced responsiveness to psychostimulants. Hum Mol Genet . 2008 Oct 15 ; 17(20):3191-203. Abstract
Savonenko AV, Melnikova T, Laird FM, Stewart KA, Price DL, Wong PC. Alteration of BACE1-dependent NRG1/ErbB4 signaling and schizophrenia-like phenotypes in BACE1-null mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 2008 Apr 8 ; 105(14):5585-90. Abstract
Selemon LD, Wang L, Nebel MB, Csernansky JG, Goldman-Rakic PS, Rakic P. Direct and indirect effects of fetal irradiation on cortical gray and white matter volume in the macaque. Biol Psychiatry . 2005 Jan 1 ; 57(1):83-90. Abstract

Friedman HR, Selemon LD. Fetal irradiation interferes with adult cognition in the nonhuman primate. Biol Psychiatry . 2010 Jul 1 ; 68(1):108-11. Abstract
Shi L, Smith SE, Malkova N, Tse D, Su Y, Patterson PH. Activation of the maternal immune system alters cerebellar development in the offspring. Brain Behav Immun . 2009 Jan ; 23(1):116-23. Abstract

Meyer U, Knuesel I, Nyffeler M, Feldon J. Chronic clozapine treatment improves prenatal infection-induced working memory deficits without influencing adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010;208(4):531-43. Abstract

Meyer U, Schwendener S, Feldon J, Yee BK. Prenatal and postnatal maternal contributions in the infection model of schizophrenia. Exp Brain Res . 2006 Aug 1 ; 173(2):243-57. Abstract

Meyer U, Nyffeler M, Schwendener S, Knuesel I, Yee BK, Feldon J. Relative prenatal and postnatal maternal contributions to schizophrenia-related neurochemical dysfunction after in utero immune challenge. Neuropsychopharmacology . 2008 Jan ; 33(2):441-56. Abstract

Ozawa K, Hashimoto K, Kishimoto T, Shimizu E, Ishikura H, Iyo M. Immune activation during pregnancy in mice leads to dopaminergic hyperfunction and cognitive impairment in the offspring: a neurodevelopmental animal model of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry . 2006 Mar 15 ; 59(6):546-54. Abstract

Smith SE, Li J, Garbett K, Mirnics K, Patterson PH. Maternal immune activation alters fetal brain development through interleukin-6. J Neurosci . 2007 Oct 3 ; 27(40):10695-702. Abstract

Makinodan M, Tatsumi K, Manabe T, Yamauchi T, Makinodan E, Matsuyoshi H, Shimoda S, Noriyama Y, Kishimoto T, Wanaka A. Maternal immune activation in mice delays myelination and axonal development in the hippocampus of the offspring. J Neurosci Res . 2008 Aug 1 ; 86(10):2190-200. Abstract

Li Q, Cheung C, Wei R, Hui ES, Feldon J, Meyer U, Chung S, Chua SE, Sham PC, Wu EX, McAlonan GM. Prenatal immune challenge is an environmental risk factor for brain and behavior change relevant to schizophrenia: evidence from MRI in a mouse model. PLoS One. 2009;4(7):e6354. Abstract

Bitanihirwe BK, Peleg-Raibstein D, Mouttet F, Feldon J, Meyer U. Late prenatal immune activation in mice leads to behavioral and neurochemical abnormalities relevant to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35(12):2462-78. Abstract

Ducharme G, Lowe GC, Goutagny R, Williams S. Early alterations in hippocampal circuitry and theta rhythm generation in a mouse model of prenatal infection: implications for schizophrenia. PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e29754. Abstract

Soumiya H, Fukumitsu H, Furukawa S. Prenatal immune challenge compromises development of upper-layer but not deeper-layer neurons of the mouse cerebral cortex. J Neurosci Res. 2011;89(9):1342-50. Abstract
Siuciak JA, McCarthy SA, Chapin DS, Martin AN. Behavioral and neurochemical characterization of mice deficient in the phosphodiesterase-4B (PDE4B) enzyme. Psychopharmacology (Berl) . 2008 Mar 1 ; 197(1):115-26. Abstract
Solbrig MV, Koob GF, Parsons LH, Kadota T, Horscroft N, Briese T, Lipkin WI. Neurotrophic factor expression after CNS viral injury produces enhanced sensitivity to psychostimulants: potential mechanism for addiction vulnerability. J Neurosci . 2000 Nov 1 ; 20(21):RC104. Abstract

Pletnikov MV, Rubin SA, Vogel MW, Moran TH, Carbone KM. Effects of genetic background on neonatal Borna disease virus infection-induced neurodevelopmental damage. I. Brain pathology and behavioral deficits. Brain Res . 2002 Jul 19 ; 944(1-2):97-107. Abstract

Hans A, Bajramovic JJ, Syan S, Perret E, Dunia I, Brahic M, Gonzalez-Dunia D. Persistent, noncytolytic infection of neurons by Borna disease virus interferes with ERK 1/2 signaling and abrogates BDNF-induced synaptogenesis. FASEB J . 2004 May 1 ; 18(7):863-5. Abstract

Pletnikov MV, Rubin SA, Schwartz GJ, Carbone KM, Moran TH. Effects of neonatal rat Borna disease virus (BDV) infection on the postnatal development of the brain monoaminergic systems. Brain Res Dev Brain Res . 2000 Feb 7 ; 119(2):179-85. Abstract

Eisenman LM, Brothers R, Tran MH, Kean RB, Dickson GM, Dietzschold B, Hooper DC. Neonatal Borna disease virus infection in the rat causes a loss of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. J Neurovirol . 1999 Apr 1 ; 5(2):181-9. Abstract

Lancaster K, Dietz DM, Moran TH, Pletnikov MV. Abnormal social behaviors in young and adult rats neonatally infected with Borna disease virus. Behav Brain Res . 2007 Jan 10 ; 176(1):141-8. Abstract
Stefansson H, Sigurdsson E, Steinthorsdottir V, Bjornsdottir S, Sigmundsson T, Ghosh S, Brynjolfsson J, Gunnarsdottir S, Ivarsson O, Chou TT, Hjaltason O, Birgisdottir B, Jonsson H, Gudnadottir VG, Gudmundsdottir E, Bjornsson A, Ingvarsson B, Ingason A, Sigfusson S, Hardardottir H, Harvey RP, Lai D, Zhou M, Brunner D, Mutel V, Gonzalo A, Lemke G, Sainz J, Johannesson G, Andresson T, Gudbjartsson D, Manolescu A, Frigge ML, Gurney ME, Kong A, Gulcher JR, Petursson H, Stefansson K. Neuregulin 1 and susceptibility to schizophrenia. Am J Hum Genet . 2002 Oct 1 ; 71(4):877-92. Abstract
Stevens KE, Kem WR, Mahnir VM, Freedman R. Selective alpha7-nicotinic agonists normalize inhibition of auditory response in DBA mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl) . 1998 Apr 1 ; 136(4):320-7. Abstract
Szumlinski KK, Lominac KD, Kleschen MJ, Oleson EB, Dehoff MH, Schwarz MK, Schwartz MK, Seeburg PH, Seeberg PH, Worley PF, Kalivas PW. Behavioral and neurochemical phenotyping of Homer1 mutant mice: possible relevance to schizophrenia. Genes Brain Behav . 2005 Jul 1 ; 4(5):273-88. Abstract
Szumlinski KK, Lominac KD, Kleschen MJ, Oleson EB, Dehoff MH, Schwarz MK, Schwartz MK, Seeburg PH, Seeberg PH, Worley PF, Kalivas PW. Behavioral and neurochemical phenotyping of Homer1 mutant mice: possible relevance to schizophrenia. Genes Brain Behav . 2005 Jul 1 ; 4(5):273-88. Abstract
Trinh JV, Nehrenberg DL, Jacobsen JP, Caron MG, Wetsel WC. Differential psychostimulant-induced activation of neural circuits in dopamine transporter knockout and wild type mice. Neuroscience . 2003 Jan 1 ; 118(2):297-310. Abstract

Rodriguiz RM, Chu R, Caron MG, Wetsel WC. Aberrant responses in social interaction of dopamine transporter knockout mice. Behav Brain Res . 2004 Jan 5 ; 148(1-2):185-98. Abstract
Tsai G, Ralph-Williams RJ, Martina M, Bergeron R, Berger-Sweeney J, Dunham KS, Jiang Z, Caine SB, Coyle JT. Gene knockout of glycine transporter 1: characterization of the behavioral phenotype. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 2004 Jun 1 ; 101(22):8485-90. Abstract
Verma V, Tan CH, Ong WY, Grigoryan GA, Jones CA, Stolzberg D, Salvi R, Gross KW, Ratty AK, Dawe GS. The chakragati mouse shows deficits in prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle and latent inhibition. Neurosci Res . 2008 Mar 1 ; 60(3):281-8. Abstract
Wersinger SR, Ginns EI, O'Carroll AM, Lolait SJ, Young WS. Vasopressin V1b receptor knockout reduces aggressive behavior in male mice. Mol Psychiatry . 2002 Jan 1 ; 7(9):975-84. Abstract
Wolinsky TD, Swanson CJ, Smith KE, Zhong H, Borowsky B, Seeman P, Branchek T, Gerald CP. The Trace Amine 1 receptor knockout mouse: an animal model with relevance to schizophrenia. Genes Brain Behav . 2007 Oct 1 ; 6(7):628-39. Abstract
Wood GK, Tomasiewicz H, Rutishauser U, Magnuson T, Quirion R, Rochford J, Srivastava LK. NCAM-180 knockout mice display increased lateral ventricle size and reduced prepulse inhibition of startle. Neuroreport . 1998 Feb 16 ; 9(3):461-6. Abstract
Yamasaki N, Maekawa M, Kobayashi K, Kajii Y, Maeda J, Soma M, Takao K, Tanda K, Ohira K, Toyama K, Kanzaki K, Fukunaga K, Sudo Y, Ichinose H, Ikeda M, Iwata N, Ozaki N, Suzuki H, Higuchi M, Suhara T, Yuasa S, Miyakawa T. Alpha-CaMKII deficiency causes immature dentate gyrus, a novel candidate endophenotype of psychiatric disorders. Mol Brain. 2008 Jan 1 ; 1(1):6. Abstract

Chen C, Rainnie DG, Greene RW, Tonegawa S. Abnormal fear response and aggressive behavior in mutant mice deficient for alpha-calcium-calmodulin kinase II. Science. 1994 Oct 14 ; 266(5183):291-4. Abstract
Yamauchi Y, Qin LH, Nishihara M, Sawada K, Kato K, Inoue S. Vulnerability of synaptic plasticity in the complexin II knockout mouse to maternal deprivation stress. Brain Res . 2005 Sep 14 ; 1056(1):59-67. Abstract
Yee BK, Keist R, von Boehmer L, Studer R, Benke D, Hagenbuch N, Dong Y, Malenka RC, Fritschy JM, Bluethmann H, Feldon J, Möhler H, Rudolph U. A schizophrenia-related sensorimotor deficit links alpha 3-containing GABAA receptors to a dopamine hyperfunction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 2005 Nov 22 ; 102(47):17154-9.Abstract
Zuckerman L, Weiner I. Post-pubertal emergence of disrupted latent inhibition following prenatal immune activation. Psychopharmacology (Berl) . 2003 Sep ; 169(3-4):308-13. Abstract

Zuckerman L, Weiner I. Maternal immune activation leads to behavioral and pharmacological changes in the adult offspring. J Psychiatr Res . 2005 May ; 39(3):311-23. Abstract

Zuckerman L, Rehavi M, Nachman R, Weiner I. Immune activation during pregnancy in rats leads to a postpubertal emergence of disrupted latent inhibition, dopaminergic hyperfunction, and altered limbic morphology in the offspring: a novel neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology . 2003 Oct ; 28(10):1778-89. Abstract

Wolff AR, Bilkey DK. Immune activation during mid-gestation disrupts sensorimotor gating in rat offspring. Behav Brain Res. 2008;190(1):156-9. Abstract

Wolff AR, Cheyne KR, Bilkey DK. Behavioural deficits associated with maternal immune activation in the rat model of schizophrenia. Behav Brain Res. 2011;225(1):382-7. Abstract

Vorhees CV, Graham DL, Braun AA, Schaefer TL, Skelton MR, Richtand NM, Williams MT. Prenatal immune challenge in rats: altered responses to dopaminergic and glutamatergic agents, prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and reduced route-based learning as a function of maternal body weight gain after prenatal exposure to poly IC. Synapse. 2012;66(8):725-37. Abstract

Richtand NM, Ahlbrand R, Horn P, Tambyraja R, Grainger M, Bronson SL, McNamara RK. Fluoxetine and aripiprazole treatment following prenatal immune activation exert longstanding effects on rat locomotor response. Physiol Behav. 2012;106(2):171-7. Abstract


Copyright © 2005- 2014 Schizophrenia Research Forum Privacy Policy Disclaimer Disclosure Copyright