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Annotation

McGrath JJ, Eyles DW, Pedersen CB, Anderson C, Ko P, Burne TH, Norgaard-Pedersen B, Hougaard DM, Mortensen PB. Neonatal vitamin D status and risk of schizophrenia: a population-based case-control study. Arch Gen Psychiatry . 2010 Sep ; 67(9):889-94. PubMed Abstract

Comments on Paper and Primary News
Primary News: Research Roundup —The Tapestry of Environmental Influences in Psychosis

Comment by:  John McGrath, SRF Advisor
Submitted 5 November 2010 Posted 5 November 2010

The large study from Nuevo and colleagues is very thought provoking. There was substantial between-site variation in response to various psychosis-screening items. Assuming that endorsement of these items is a mix of: 1) "true" psychotic-like experiences, 2) "true" responses that are understandable from the perspective of local cultures and beliefs, and 3) innocent misinterpretations of the questions, why is there such marked variation? For example, why do 46 percent of respondents from Nepal endorse at least one psychotic-like experience and a third report auditory hallucinations?

It seems self-evident that populations with strong religious and/or cultural beliefs related to psychotic-like experiences might endorse psychosis-screening items more readily (type 2 in the above list). But could it be feasible that these same populations might also “kindle” psychotic experiences in vulnerable people? This notion is pure speculation, but we should remain mindful that dopaminergic pathways related to psychosis are vulnerable to the process of endogenous sensitization (  Read more


View all comments by John McGrath

Primary News: Research Roundup —The Tapestry of Environmental Influences in Psychosis

Comment by:  Tanya Luhrmann
Submitted 12 November 2010 Posted 12 November 2010

It seems to me that there may be two different patterns that show up in these large epidemiological studies: the psychotic continuum and phenomena associated with absorption. Absorption is basically a capacity for/interest in being caught up in your imagination. It is associated with hypnotizability and dissociation, but not identical to them (Tellegen and Atkinson, 1974).

In my own work on evangelical Christianity, I identify a pattern in which people report hallucination-like phenomena that are rare, brief, and not distressing (as opposed to the pattern associated with psychotic disorder, in which the hallucinations are often frequent, extended, and distressing). Those who report hearing God’s voice audibly or seeing the wing of an angel are also more likely to score highly on the Tellegen absorption scale (Luhrmann et al., 2010). This relationship between unusual experiences and absorption also shows up in a significant relationship between absorption and the Posey-Loesch hearing voices scale when these scales are given to...  Read more


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Primary News: Research Roundup —The Tapestry of Environmental Influences in Psychosis

Comment by:  Mary Cannon
Submitted 15 November 2010 Posted 15 November 2010

This beautifully written piece serves to excite interest in the fascinating epidemiology of schizophrenia. In our search for the “missing heritability” of schizophrenia, we don’t have to look too far for clues. There are many contained in this piece. It just requires some Sherlock Holmes-type deductive reasoning to put them all together now!

The realization that psychotic symptoms (or psychotic-like experiences) can be used as a proxy for schizophrenia risk has opened up new vistas for exploration (Kelleher and Cannon, 2010). For instance, the paper by Nuevo and colleagues will provide a fertile ground for testing ecological hypotheses on the etiology of schizophrenia—such as examining cross-national vitamin D levels (McGrath et al.) or fish oil consumption. Geneticists have yet to appreciate the potential value of studying such symptoms. Ian Kelleher, Jack Jenner, and I have argued in a recent editorial that the non-clinical psychosis phenotype provides us with a population in which to test hypotheses about the...  Read more


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Primary News: Research Roundup —The Tapestry of Environmental Influences in Psychosis

Comment by:  Jean-Paul Selten
Submitted 17 November 2010 Posted 17 November 2010
  I recommend this paper

With interest, I read Victoria Wilcox's summary of some thought-provoking papers published this year. It seems that schizophrenia, like cancer, has many different causes. I would like to point out that three of the studies (Zammit et al., 2010; Wicks et al., 2010; Schofield et al., 2010) support the idea that social defeat and/or social exclusion increase risk. The paper by Zammit et al. showed this in an elegant way: being different from the mainstream, no matter on what account, increased the subject's risk. The next step is to show that social exclusion has an impact on an individual's dopamine function. My group is examining this in young adults with an acquired hearing impairment, using SPECT.

References:

Zammit S, Lewis G, Rasbash J, Dalman C, Gustafsson J-E, Allebeck P. Individuals, schools, and neighborhood: a multilevel longitudinal study of variation in incidence of psychotic disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010 Sep;67(9):914-22. Abstract

Wicks S, Hjern A, Dalman C. Social risk or genetic liability for psychosis? A study of children born in Sweden and reared by adoptive parents. Am J Psychiatry. 2010 Oct;167(10):1240-6. Epub 2010 Aug 4. Abstract

Schofield P, Ashworth M, Jones R. Ethnic isolation and psychosis: re-examining the ethnic density effect. Psychol Med. 2010 Sep 22:1-7. Abstract

View all comments by Jean-Paul Selten


Primary News: Research Roundup —The Tapestry of Environmental Influences in Psychosis

Comment by:  Chris Carter
Submitted 26 November 2010 Posted 26 November 2010
  I recommend this paper

I have been collecting diverse references for environmental risk factors in schizophrenia at Schizophrenia Risk Factors. These include many prenatal influences due to maternal infection, usually with some sort of virus, or immune activation with fever. Several animal studies have shown that infection or immune activation in mice can produce schizophrenia-like symptoms in the offspring. Toxoplasmosis has often been cited as a risk factor in adulthood.

Many of the genes implicated in schizophrenia are also involved in the life cycles of these pathogens, and interactions between genes and risk factors can together contribute to endophenotypes; for example, MICB and Herpes simplex infection have single and combined effects on grey matter volume in the prefrontal cortex.

Over 600 genes have been associated with schizophrenia. When these were pumped through a Kegg pathway analysis, the usual suspects (neuregulin, dopamine, and glutamate pathways, among others) figure highly in the   Read more


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