Table 1. Imaging studies of striatal D2 receptor parameters in drug naive and drug free patients with schizophrenia

Class radiotracer Radiotracer Study n Controls n Patients (DN/DF)a Method p Effect sizeb Ratio SD
Butyrophenones [11C]NMSP (Wong et al. 1986b) 11 15 (10/5) Kinetic <0.05 3.06 2.10
  [76Br]SPI (Crawley et al., 1986) 8 16 (12/4) Ratio <0.05 0.79 0.86
  [76Br]SPI (Blin et al., 1989) 8 8 (0/8) Ratio ns 0.28 1.00
  [76Br]SPI (Martinot et al., 1990) 12 12 (0/12) Ratio ns 0.14 1.41
  [11C]NMSP (Tune et al., 1993) 17 10 (8/2) Kinetic 0.08 0.91 1.79
  [11C]NMSP (Nordstrom et al., 1995) 7 7 (7/0) Kinetic ns 1.33 2.50
  [11C]NMSP (Okubo et al., 1997) 18 17(10/7) Kinetic ns 0.19 0.74
Benzamides [11C]Raclopride (Farde et al., 1990) 20 18 (18/0) Equilib. ns 0.23 0.63
  [11C]Raclopride (Hietala et al., 1994) 10 13 (0/13) Equilib. ns 0.55 1.99
  [123I]IBZM (Pilowsky et al., 1994b) 20 20 (17/3) Ratio ns -0.07 0.82
  [123I]IBZM (Laruelle et al., 1996) 15 15 (1/14) Equilib. ns 0.56 1.25
  [123I]IBZM (Knable et al., 1997) 16 21 (1/20) Equilib. ns -0.12 1.31
  [11C]Raclopride (Breier et al., 1997) 12 11 (6/5) Equilib. ns 0.02 1.69
  [123I]IBZM (Abi-Dargham et al., 1998) 15 15 (2/13) Equilib. ns 0.09 2.50
  [123I]IBZM (Abi-Dargham et al., 2000) 18 18 (8/10) Equilib. ns 0.33 1.11
  [123I]IBZM (Yang et al., 2004) 12 11 (11/0) Ratio ns 0.09 1
Ergot Alk. [76Br]Lisuride (Martinot et al., 1991) 14 19 (10/9) Ratio ns 0.45 1.21
  [76Br]Lisuride (Martinot et al., 1994) 10 10 (2/8) Ratio ns 0.00 1.29

aDN = drug naive; DF = drug free. bs Effect size calculated as (Mean patients -mean controls) / SD controls